19th Century Art Education, Industrial Art or Fine Art?
East Carolina University MAED
Art 6800 History and Philosophy of Art Education
As an art educator in the today’s public school system, I feel that it is my responsibility to introduce and allow my students to explore the arts from the past and the present. I want them to learn a variety of art making techniques and art history. I also want to prepare them for future by giving them exposure to possible career choices that utilizes the arts. Therefore I feel it is important that my art classes allow students to be exposed to both the fine arts and design fields of the 21st century. 21st century technology ...view middle of the document...
It caused split in art education. Education of the fine artist was separate from the education of artisans in most nations. France was one nation that did not separate its schooling of fine artists and artisans. Life drawing was actually considered the heart of its schools of decorative art. The schools’ industrial design studies were built upon an existing base of academic drawing. It objective was to give elementary instruction in art with a view to the improvement of French Goods. Because its artisans were trained like fine artist, the French Industry maintain a level of superiority (Macdonald, 1970, 2004). German states on the other hand, found that it was to their advantage to prepare artisans in craft schools separately from the fine art academies. Their Kunstgewerbeschule were considered trade schools that also focused on industrial application of the arts. These were the two nations that the British were looking at to model their art education after. They eventually choose the German model even though the French model produce better designers and design products. British kept using their German based model even after the Schools of Design were taken over years later by Henry Cole. In 1890s, even the German recognized the success of the French art education model that place attention on the fine art. (Smith,1996)
Now lets look at how art education became a part of the American school system. First of all how did some of our leaders view the purpose, values and goals of art education in the 18th century. Horace Mann believed that drawing could be use to train the mind for other things such as writing. Others felt art education can use to support American democratic principles. Art education can also conceive as a way to prepare students with technical skills need for the industrial society in America. Finally art education could be use to prepare immigrants for social acceptability and to adjust easily in the American industrial work environment. These viewpoints give reference to ways of showing the nature of art education in the United States in the 1800s and 1900s. They also made it plausible to seek an art education supervisor that is concerned with industrial art and who knowledge will give the program viability (Freedman & Popkewitz, n.d.).
Adapting to needs of society and labor selection were given as reasons to introduce art education in the late 1800s. So as the Industrial Revolution took place in the United States, art education became a practical subject in schools. Industrial hands needed basic artistic training. Industrialists with the help the newly formed laboring class promoted the cause of art education. Corporate leaders felts that Americans were competing under a disadvantage with European manufacturers. They felt they had to hire artisans trained in Europe. Therefore a drawing act was created so the United States could develop artisans to make American industrial products more productive (Freedman &...