THIRD ESSAY: 14 OCTOBER 2011
9/11 TERRORIST ATTACKS IMPACT ON US NATIONAL SECURITY
TABLE OF CONTENT
US Government changes since 9/11
Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Act
The USA Patriot Act
National Defense Programs
Ten years have passed since the United States was attacked by Al-Qaeda terrorists on September 11, 2001. The event was a crucial moment in U.S. history. After it was discovered that the attacks were delivered by Al-Qaeda, the information sparked intense debate in the political world. ...view middle of the document...
The act requires the government to keep records on surveillance for a period of 10 years. It increased the time for warrantless surveillance from 48 hours to 7 days. It requires government agencies to cease warranted surveillance of a targeted American if they enter the United States. The new provisions to the surveillance act are scheduled to expire on December 31, 2012.
The amendment to the FISA prohibits the government from invoking war powers or other authorities to supersede surveillance rules in the future. The changes have been criticized as they have granted immunity to the telecoms. This created an immediate roadblock for a number of lawsuits intended to expose the alleged abuses of power and illegal activities of the federal government since and before the September 11th attacks. The changes to the Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Act allows the government to conduct surveillance of any person for up to one week without a warrant, increased from the previous 48 hours, as long as the FISA court is notified at the time such surveillance begins.
The Intelligence Reform and Terrorism Prevention Act of 2004 is a 236-page Act of Congress, signed by President George W. Bush that broadly affects U.S. federal terrorism laws. The act is composed of several separate titles with varying subject issues. It established both the position of Director of National Intelligence (DNI), the National Counterterrorism Center (NCTC), and the Privacy and Civil Liberties Oversight Board. The Director of National Intelligence is the person serving as the principal advisor to the President, the National Security Council, and the Homeland Security Council for intelligence matters related to national security.
The Director of National Intelligence serves as the head of the sixteen-member U.S. Intelligence Community. Establishment of the DNI position was recommended in the report given by the 9/11 Commission investigating the September 11 attacks. The report, which was released on July 22, 2004, identified major intelligence failures that questioned how well the Intelligence Community protected U.S. national and homeland security interests against attacks by foreign terrorists. The new law requires the CIA Director to report his agency’s activities to the DNI.
In particular, the law left the United States Department of Defense in charge of the National Security Agency (NSA), the National Reconnaissance Office (NRO), and the National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency. The Joint Intelligence Community Council was appointed as an executive oversight body to the Intelligence Community. The Act established the Office of the Director of National Intelligence (ODNI) as an independent agency to assist the DNI. The budget for the ODNI and the Intelligence Community equal 43.5 billion.
The USA Patriot Act
The USA PATRIOT Act is an Act of the U.S. Congress that was signed into law by President George W. Bush on October 26,...