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A Brief History Of Translation Essay

1060 words - 5 pages


From 3000 BC onwards (Ancient Egypt) Translation became important in the West from 300 BC • Romans took over Greek culture • To enrich their native tongue/literature (not just imitate) • sense for sense not word for word (Cicero 106-43 BC, Horace 65-8 BC) • Considerable licence 12th-15th century • 1492: Spanish kings/queens reconquered Spain from Moors • Toledo School of translators translated Arabic versions of Greek science/philosophy into Spanish Bible translation: from 4th century onwards • 384 BC: Pope Damascus commissioned St Jerome to translate NT into Latin (from Greek) and OT (from Hebrew) • 1380-84: John Wycliffe: first complete translation into ...view middle of the document...

• S.T. Coleridge: (1772-1834): fancy v. imagination • Contact with other cultures: increase in translation (incl. literary criticism) • Translation of Shakespeare (into German 1797-1833) by August Wilhelm Schlegel (1767-1845) and Ludwig Tieck (1773-1853) • Translation of Dante’s Divine Comedy into German (Schlegel) and English (Francis Cary, 1772-1844)

• Translated literature exerted seminal influence on SL • Translation = work of creative genius or mechanical process • Archaism: Friedrich Schleiermacher (1768-1834), Thomas Carlyle (1795-1881), William Morris (1834-96) 20th century: the Age of Translation • Continuation of 19th century ideas (Walter Benjamin (18921940) • Hilaire Belloc (1870-1953, On Translation, 1931) • Ezra Pound (1885-1972) • Modern linguistics: communication theory, structuralism: translation as a science • [Note also the role of Roland Barthes (1915-80): reader/translator as interpreters] Roman Jakobson (1896-1982) (Prague School) On linguistic aspects of translation (1959) • Structuralism (Ferdinand de Saussure) • Distinguished interlingual, intralingual, intersemiotic translation • Equivalence between sign systems Eugene A. Nida (1914-) Towards a Science of Translating (1964) The Theory and Practice of Translation (with Charles Taber, 1969) • Linguistic, referential, emotive (connotative) meaning • Componential analysis/semantic structure analysis • Deep structure/kernel sentences • Formal and dynamic equivalence (instead of literal, free or faithful translation) Peter Newmark Approaches to Translation (1981) A Textbook on Translation (1988) • Semantic v. communicative translation • Questions validity of achieving full equivalent effect on TL reader • Prescribes procedures for handling text types, metaphors, cultural terms, etc.

Germany: ‘science of translation’ (Übersetzungswissenschaft) Leipzig School (Albrecht Neubert, Otto Kade, in former GDR) Wolfram Wilss (Saarland University) Werner Koller (Bergen University) • Einführung in die Übersetzungswissenschaft (1979) • Indentified 5 types of equivalence (from denotative to formal) Emphasised need for text analysis to identify hierarchy of equivalence requirements Linguistic approaches to translation (linguistic shifts) Comparative/contrastive linguistic studies (1960s-) J.-P. Vinay and J. Darbelnet, Slylistique comparée du français et de l’anglais: Méthode de traduction (1958) • Translation strategies: • Direct/oblique, borrowing, calque A. Malblanc, Slylistique comparée du français et de l’allemand (1963) G. Vázquez-Ayora, García Yebra (Spanish/English) J. C. Catford, A Linguistic Theory of Translation (1965) Linguistic shifts • Relation between formal and translation equivalence Kitty van Leuven-Zwart (Amsterdam, 1984-1990) • Comparative model: micro-level shifts (at...

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