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A&P Review

1648 words - 7 pages

Pineal gland: surrounded by optic nerve
Makes melatoninresponsible for sleep patterns
relaxing sleeping state. Does NOT put you to sleep
produced from an amino acid: tryptophan
inhibits LH & FSH = affects reproduction
(pinealocytes: actual cells that produce melatonin) *light decreases melatonin

Adrenal glands: sits on top of the kidneys (right and left)
Adrenal cortex: 1) zona glomerulosa – mineral corticoids
Affected by: a)ACTH
b)minerals – salts
*adosterone: regulates sodium (Na2+)

2) zona fasciculata – glucocorticoids
Affected by: a)ACTH
b)amounts of glucose
*cortisol

3) zona reticularis – ...view middle of the document...

T-cells are located there.
3)septum- connective tissue separating out islands in the thymus
4)lobules- island made by the septum

*thymopoletin: stem cells to produce T-cells (immature T-cells)
*thymosin: (medulla) early development of T-cell (immature T-cells receptors)
*thymulin: late development of T-cell (specification of T-cells)

Ovaries:
Estrogen: promote secondary sexual characteristics
Inhibin: produced by corpus luteum
Activin: increases production of FSH by anterior pituitary


Thecal cells: androstenedione
Granulose cells: enzyme to convert androstenedione into estrogen

Liver: -cholecalciferol calcidiol
-secretes erythropoietin (15%) stimulates bone marrow
-hepcidin- promotes intestinal absorption of iron

IGF productionmimics GH function
Insulin growth factor

Adipose: leptin
Suppress appetite only if the amount of lipids in body are high.

2. Be able to identify the 4 releasing hormones and the 2 inhibitory hormones directed towards the anterior pituitary. Be able to identify the 2 hormones from the hypothalamus that are released from the posterior pituitary.
Anterior Pituitary(Adenohypohpysis)
1. (Releasing hormone)Thyrotropin-reaches anterior lobe of pituitary and stimulates release of Thyroid stimulating hormone(TSH)/Prolactin(PRL).
2. (Releasing Hormone)Gonadotropin- releases Follicle Stimulating Hormone(FSH)/Luteinizing Hormone(LH).
3. (Releasing Hormone) Growth Hormone-stimulates cells in adenohypophysis to secrete Growth Hormone(GH).
4. (Releasing Hormone)Corticotropin- stimulates cells in the adenohypophysis to release Adrenocorticotropic Hormone(ACTH).

Anterior Pituitary(Adenohypohpysis)
A. (Inhibiting Hormone) Somatostatin-inhibits release of Growth Hormone(GH) and of Thyroid Stimulating Hormone(TSH).
B. (Inhibiting Hormone) Dopamine-inhibits release of Prolactin(PRL).

Posterior Pituitary(Neurohypophysis)
I. Oxytocin(Cuddle Hormone)- uterus, mammary glands-uterine contraction; lactation-supraoptic and paraventricular.
II. Antidiuretic Hormone(Vasopressin)-kidneys or arterioles- stimulates water retention; raises blood pressure by contracting arterioles-supraoptic and paraventricular nuclei.

3).be able to describe the major functions of the hormones above. For the hypothalamic hormones directed against the anterior pituitary (releasing and inhibitory), be able to identity which anterior pituitary hormone is affected by each.
4 Releasing hormones:
* Thyrotropin-releasing hormone - tripeptide (GluHisPro) - reaches anterior lobe of pituitary and stimulates release of
*Thyroid Stimulanting Hormone(TSH )
* stimulates secretion of thyroid hormone
metabolism.
* Prolactin (PRL)
* after birth stimulates mammary glands to synthesize milk,
* enhances secretion of testosterone by testes

* Corticotropin-releasing hormone 41 aa peptide
* Stimulates cells in adenohypophysis to release
...

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