* Abnormal psychology is the branch of psychology that studies unusual patterns of behavior, emotion and thought, which may or may not be understood as precipitating a mental disorder.
* The field of abnormal psychology identifies multiple causes for different conditions, employing diverse theories from the general field of psychology and elsewhere, and much still hinges on what exactly is meant by "abnormal".
* There has traditionally been a divide between psychological and biological explanations, reflecting a philosophical dualism in regards to the mind body problem.
* There have also been different approaches in trying to classify mental disorders.
* Personality psychology is a branch of psychology that studies personality and its variation between individuals.
* "Personality" is a dynamic and organized set of characteristics possessed by a person that uniquely influences their cognitions, emotions, motivations, and behaviors in various situations. It also refers to the pattern of thoughts, feelings, social adjustments, and behaviors consistently exhibited over time that strongly influences one's expectations, self-perceptions, values, and attitudes. It also predicts human reactions to other people, problems, and stress.
* Gordon Allport (1937) described two major ways to study personality:
* Nomothetic psychology
* Idiographic psychology
* The major theories include dispositional:
* Social learning perpective
* Many researchers and psychologists do not explicitly identify themselves with a certain perspective and instead take an eclectic approach.
* In psychological education and training, the study of the nature of personality and its psychological development is usually reviewed as a prerequisite to courses in abnormal psychology or clinical psychology.
* Five categories of the most fundamental philosophical assumptions on which theorists disagree:
> Freedom versus Determinism
> Heredity versus Environment
> Uniqueness versus Universality
> Active versus reactive
> Optimistic versus pessimistic
* There are two major type of personality test:
* Personality test
* Objective test
* Educational psychology is the scientific study of human learning. The study of learning processes, both cognitive and affective, allows researchers to understand individual differences in behavior, personality, intellect, and self-concept. The field of educational psychology heavily relies on testing, measurement, assessment, evaluation, and training to enhance educational activities and learning processes.
* It involves the study of how people learn, including topics such as student outcomes, the instructional process, individual differences in learning, gifted learners and learning disabilities.
* There are different perspective involved in Educational Psychology:
* To understand the characteristics of learners in childhood, adolescence, adulthood, and old age, educational psychology develops and applies theories of human development.
* These often represented as stages through which people pass as they mature, developmental theories describe changes in mental abilities (cognition), social roles, moral reasoning, and beliefs about the nature of knowledge.
* Educational psychology research on motivation is...