This website uses cookies to ensure you have the best experience. Learn more

About Bosnia History Essay

606 words - 3 pages

The Republic of Bosnia-Herzegovina was in many ways the heart of the former Yugoslavia, both geographically and culturally. It was home to 4.36 million people (1991 census figure), 44% of whom declared themselves Bosniak ('Muslim'), 31% Serb and 17% Croat, while there were also significant numbers of Jews, Roma, Albanians, undetermined 'Yugoslavs' and others. The country's ethnic diversity, however, did not entail territorial division, since the different national groups were inextricably intermingled in their geographical distribution (the famous 'leopard skin'), and especially in the urban centres there was a high proportion of mixed marriages. Nor did it entail social separateness, since the component parts developed within a common historical, linguistic and cultural space, giving rise to a specifically Bosnian paradigm of unity within diversity.

The Bosnian state was first mentioned in Byzantine sources in the early tenth ...view middle of the document...

With the dissolution of the Yugoslav Federation, confirmed by the EU's Badinter Commission, Bosnia-Herzegovina sought international recognition, which it achieved on 6 April 1992 following an internationally supervised referendum in which the great majority of its population voted in favour of independence.

The newly independent republic was almost strangled at birth, however, by aggression waged from the neighbouring republics of Serbia and Croatia, with the aim of carving out an ethnically pure Greater Serbia and Greater Croatia at Bosnia's expense. The Bosnian population of all ethnic backgrounds suffered gravely during the 1992-95 war, particularly since Serbia's aggression from the outset assumed a genocidal character, with brutal 'ethnic cleansing' ( mass killing and deportation of non-Serbs from occupied areas), while Croatia's aggression subsequently replicated much of this - especially in 1993-4 - albeit on a smaller scale. During the war over a quarter of a million Bosnians lost their lives and over one million left the country, while a further 800,000 became refugees in their own land. The resulting transformation of the demographic and social pattern has nevertheless left the essential ethnic proportions unchanged, so that Bosnia-Herzegovina remains the home of Bosniaks, Serbs, Croats, Jews, Roma, etc.

The Dayton Accords brokered by the United States at the end of 1995 brought an end to the fighting, but left the country divided into two 'entities' - a 'Federation of B-H' in which only Bosniaks and Croats have full constitutional rights, and a 'Republika Srpska' [Serb Republic] in which only Serbs have full rights - loosely joined by a weak central government. This has left an unstable situation in which (despite a massive Nato military presence) most refugees are unable to return to their homes and the country is unable to begin serious material reconstruction and economic growth. Though Bosnia-Herzegovina's future as a single state is assured, the tempo of its recovery continues to depend on the democratic transformation not only of its own internal structures, but crucially also of its neighbours Croatia and Serbia.

Other Essays Like About Bosnia History

Kosovo: Conflicts Between Serbians And Ethnic Albanians

2265 words - 10 pages failure of the OSCE to uphold its democratic mandate in Bosnia. What can be done about the threat?      National integration in Southeastern Europe has been effected under the strong influence of several factors. They have varied depending on the local conditions, from historicism to religion, as a result, shaping particular types of national movements. The victory of the Communists in the civil war, gained with

Hate Crimes: A Trend That Never Goes Out Of Style

564 words - 3 pages among policymakers in the recent years, but this type of crime is not new it has happened in the past multiple times. Examples of the past include the Roman persecution of Christians, the Nazi’s “Final Solution” of the Jews, and recently the ethnic cleansing in Bosnia and genocide in Rwanda. Hate crimes have made and even defined history throughout the world. In the past two centuries hate crimes have existed in the U.S., some examples include

The Euro Currency

1403 words - 6 pages Kingdom and Denmark were granted exemptions per their request from moving to the stage of monetary union which would result in the introduction of the euro. The name "euro" was officially adopted in Madrid on 16 December 1995. Belgian Esperantist Germain Pirlot, a former teacher of French and history is credited with naming the new currency by sending a letter to then President of the European Commission, Jacques Santer, suggesting the name "euro

Notes On First And Second Bulgarian Crisis

1334 words - 6 pages First Bulgarian Crisis-Turkish fate concerned all great powers.-It was a Turkish misgovernment in Bosnia and Herzegovina. It was an oppressive rule of Muslim landowners over Christian peasants, in addition to taxation and labour services. This revolt spread to Bulgaria and part of the Ottoman Empire.-Localized discontents were turned into a Slav crusade against the Turks growth of nationalist feelings in the Balkans-‘Bulgarian Atrocities

To Believe Is to Succeed

960 words - 4 pages students needed to learn more about history, that’s when all the work for her began. The students were not sure that Ms. Gruwell would make it as their teacher because they were the ones that nobody wanted to bother with and were considered losers. When you have someone in life that is willing to take a chance on you and believes in you like Ms. Gruwell did ,you can really learn what life is about and get over the obstacles that are holding you

Analysis of CAFOD (A Charity Organization)

849 words - 4 pages “Catholic Fund for Overseas Development” or “CAFOD”. The main aim of this charity was to bring together the vast number of smaller charities and to educate Roman Catholics in England and Wales about the need for world development and also to raise money for developing countries. Even now CAFOD is still helping all around the world thanks to the support of Catholics in England and Wales. In 2003 alone CAFOD raised more than

Foreign Affairs

1652 words - 7 pages and Japan 2. Geographic history: states worry about more about isolation rather than intervention 3. Democracy and international institutions: reluctant, open, and highly institutionalized, seek to instruct international order; penetrative hegemony: listen to criticisms 4. These characteristic restrained American power Cox: failure of all scholars, dominated by realism views, only looked at balance of power but ignored change of society and

Guilty Hearts

913 words - 4 pages convicted of crimes against humanity at Nuremberg. Perhaps influenced by his family history, the younger von Schirach became a criminal defense lawyer, and in the mid-’90s sprang into the national consciousness by defending Günter Schabowski, a senior East German official, against charges of complicity in the shoot-to-kill policy along the Berlin Wall. In “Crime,” von Schirach is concerned less with the mass guilt of political movements than with

Citing Specific Evidence from Chaucer's Canterbury Tales (Not from the Textbook), How "Religious" Was Medieval Society (or Was It Not Religious

2721 words - 11 pages . neoconservatives celebrated the invasion of Iraq as a turning point in Middle East democracy, what did they ignore, according to Tristam? 2. According to Tristam, how has the United States used the story of Muslim on Muslim violence in Iraq? 3. Does the author believe that another genocide could happen in Iraq despite U.S. nation-building efforts? The standard line about Iraq [as of February 2006] is that the country is on the verge of civil war. That

Libya Case

1437 words - 6 pages to say and we will not be able to defend ourselves and make excuses for not acting; we will be just as guilty as Gaddafi and his regime because we just sat and watched!” (Elghul, 2011, para. 9). In keeping with the history of international humanitarianism, using Bosnia, Kosovo, or Rwanda as examples, the United Nations determined that action is necessary and the United Nations along with the North Atlantic Treaty Organization

Architecture of Transition and Production of Meaning

3797 words - 16 pages into 5 new independent nation-states: Slovenia, Croatia, Bosnia- Herzegovinia, Yugoslavia (Serbia and Montenegro) and the former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia. The surprising national optimism and excitement upon which these states were formed quickly back-fired. The war, in the beginning of the 1990s, completely destroyed the Croatian economy, especially the tourist industry. The war in Bosnia-Herzegovina, in the mid-1990s, transformed Croatia

Related Papers

Why Shouldn't The U.S. Intervene In Kosova?

1708 words - 7 pages stripped Kosova of it's autonomy in 1989 and began it's widespread policy of ethnic cleansing, mass murder and rape. And before Mr. Patrick Buchanan starts comparing the situation in Kosova to how some states seceded during the civil war, he should be aware of some significant events in Kosova's past history which he obviously is unaware of. I want to give him some brief facts about Kosova which he might have not known when he associated the

Culture Globalization Essay

1213 words - 5 pages because we are faced with the challenge of accepting and appreciating other culture systems in order to avoid ethnic nationalism and hostility. Everyone has a natural idea of what cultural identity is, just like anybody else I can tell you about my background and where I come because of the ideas I adapted growing up in life. But the change in awareness is that I can identify my self as a Bosnian American because I understand the shared beliefs

Epic Of Ol Maldi Essay

1679 words - 7 pages Day 1918. More than 70 million army personnel, together with 60 million Europeans, were mobilized in one of the most biggest wars in history. Over 9 million opponents and seven million civilians died for that reason of the warfare, a casualty rate exacerbated by the belligerents' technological and industrial sophistication, and the tactical stalemate brought about with the aid of trench struggle, a grueling form of battle in which the defender

Causes Of War Essay

2369 words - 10 pages . However historians feel that a number of factors contributed to the rivalry between the Great powers that allowed war on such a wide-scale to break out. A major historical debate still rages about who has the ultimate responsibility for the outbreak of war. Germany and Austria are usually regarded as the main culprits. However unlike World War Two there is no one easily identifiable bad guy! Below are some of the main long-term causes that are