The CPA Profession
← Review Questions
2-1 The four major services that CPAs provide are:
1. Audit and assurance services Assurance services are independent professional services that improve the quality of information for decision makers. Assurance services include attestation services, which are any services in which the CPA firm issues a report that expresses a conclusion about the reliability of an assertion that is the responsibility of another party. The four categories of attestation services are audits of historical financial statements, attestation on the effectiveness of internal control over financial reporting, reviews of historical financial ...view middle of the document...
3. Peer review This practice evaluates the performance of CPA firms in an attempt to keep competence high.
2-3 The Public Company Accounting Oversight Board provides oversight for auditors of public companies, including establishing auditing and quality control standards for public company audits, and performing inspections of the quality controls at audit firms performing those audits.
2-4 The purpose of the Securities and Exchange Commission is to assist in providing investors with reliable information upon which to make investment decisions. Since most reasonably large CPA firms have clients that must file reports with the SEC each year (all companies filing registration statements under the securities acts of l933 and l934 must file audited financial statements and other reports with the SEC at least once each year), the profession is highly involved with the SEC requirements.
The SEC has considerable influence in setting generally accepted accounting principles and disclosure requirements for financial statements because of its authority for specifying reporting requirements considered necessary for fair disclosure to investors. In addition, the SEC has power to establish rules for any CPA associated with audited financial statements submitted to the Commission.
2-5 The AICPA is the organization that sets professional requirements for CPAs. The AICPA also conducts research and publishes materials on many different subjects related to accounting, auditing, management advisory services, and taxes. The organization also prepares and grades the CPA examinations, provides continuing education to its members, and develops specialty designations to help market and assure the quality of services in specialized practice areas.
2-6 Statements on Standards for Attestation Engagements provide a framework for attest engagements, including detailed standards for specific types of attestation engagements.
2-7 The PCAOB has responsibility for establishing auditing standards for public companies, while the Auditing Standards Board (ASB) of the AICPA establishes auditing standards for private companies. The ASB previously had responsibility for establishing auditing standards for both public and private companies. Existing auditing standards were adopted by the PCAOB as interim auditing standards for public company audits.
2-8 Generally accepted auditing standards are ten general guidelines to aid auditors in fulfilling their professional responsibilities. These guidelines include three general standards concerned with competence, independence, and due professional care; three standards of field work including planning and supervision, understanding the entity and its environment, including its internal control, and the gathering of sufficient appropriate evidence; and four standards of reporting, which require a statement as to presentation in accordance with generally accepted accounting principles, inconsistency observed in the...