This website uses cookies to ensure you have the best experience. Learn more

Addiction Essay

2511 words - 11 pages

MODELS OF ADDICTIVE BEHAVIOUR
To read up on models of addictive behaviour, refer to pages 609–618 of Eysenck’s A2 Level Psychology.
Ask yourself
* Is there a biological basis to addictive behaviour?
* Can somebody learn to be an addict?
* How might explanations of addiction differ for different addictions?
What you need to know
MODELS OF ADDICTIVE BEHAVIOUR | EXPLANATIONS OF ADDICTIVE BEHAVIOUR
|
* Biological, behavioural (learning), and cognitive models of addictive behaviour  | * Biological, behavioural (learning), and cognitive explanations for initiation, maintenance, and relapse * Specific explanations of particular addictions including smoking and ...view middle of the document...

The individual is an information processor and it is a breakdown in cognitive processing that causes the addiction. Irrational, obsessive, and faulty thinking can affect emotion and behaviour. Thus, according to this model, faulty thinking and errors in decision making are considered to be the causes of addiction.
EXPLANATIONS OF ADDICTIVE BEHAVIOURS
Biological explanations of addictive behaviour
The biological explanation can explain chemical addictions such as nicotine more easily than addictions such as gambling. Biological explanations of addiction focus on neurotransmitters in the brain, and on genetic differences between people with addictions and people without addictions.
RESEARCH EVIDENCE FOR BIOLOGICAL EXPLANATIONS
* The neurotransmitter dopamine and other brain biochemicals have been linked to addictions, both chemical addition (drug addiction) and behaviours such as gambling and videogame playing (Potenza, 2001, see A2 Level Psychology page 611). High levels of dopamine are experienced as rewarding, which is why the addiction is initially enjoyed and maintained. See the bullet point below on reinforcement.
* Some family studies suggest a link between addictive behaviour and personality traits. For example, a study of monozygotic and dizygotic twins found a connection between genetics and the characteristics of anti-social personality (including attention seeking, not following social norms, and violence) and between these personality characteristics and alcoholism (Jang, Vernon, & Livesley, 2000, see A2 Level Psychology page 612). Similar findings have also been found for behavioural addictions such as gambling addiction (Comings et al., 1996, see A2 Level Psychology page 612).
* Genetics analysis looks for common genes in people with addictive behaviour compared to control groups without such behaviour.
* The biological explanation overlaps with the behavioural explanation (see below) when we look at reinforcement, which explains that the addiction is in some way rewarding. One way in which reinforcement could be obtained may be biological because there are “pleasure centres” in the brain (Olds & Milner, 1954, see A2 Level Psychology page 612). The “pleasure centres” could be activated as a result of the addiction; in this way the reward pathways in the brain are excited. This interlinks with dopamine since usually high levels of dopamine form part of these pathways.
RESEARCH EVIDENCE AGAINST BIOLOGICAL EXPLANATIONS
* A study of over 300 monozygotic (identical) twins and just under 200 same-sex dizygotic (fraternal) twins was used to estimated the contribution of genetic factors and environmental factors to substance use in adolescence. The conclusion was that the major influences on the decision to use substances were environmental rather than genetic (Han et al., 1999, see A2 Level Psychology page 611)
Evaluation of biological explanations
* Separating out the effects of addiction....

Other Essays Like Addiction

Drug Addiction Essay

625 words - 3 pages Drug addiction is a pathological condition which arises due to frequent drug use. The disorder of addiction involves the progression of acute drug use to the development of drug-seeking behavior, the vulnerability to relapse, and the decreased, slowed ability to respond to naturally rewarding stimuli. The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition (DSM-IV) has categorized three stages of addiction: preoccupation

Sex Addiction Essay

660 words - 3 pages For most people, sex contributes in positive ways to the quality of life. However, about three to six percent of Americans have sexual addiction. Like all addictions, its negative impact on the addict and on family members usually increases as the disorder progresses. Sexual addiction is best described as a progressive intimacy disorder characterized by compulsive sexual thoughts and acts. According to the findings of one study, 72% had been

Drug Addiction

844 words - 4 pages Drug Addiction There are many people in the world today that has had or currently has a drug addiction. Most people usually know what the consequences of taking a drug is, but they usually don’t think about that at the time. When people start taking drugs they don’t think about what is going to happen or even care what could happen. All they care about is that next high. A recent statistic states that 23.9 million Americans age adolescents and

Media Addiction

865 words - 4 pages time indulging in media addiction that is taking control of their lives. From social networks like Facebook and Instagram to time consuming video games and television programs that are available in numerous ways, media addiction exists and is becoming more prevalent in our society today than it has ever been. Addiction is willingly engaging and repeating an activity in which you know is causing a negative effect on your life. It’s when you put

Dota Addiction

647 words - 3 pages holidays. 4.0 Significance of the study * Education very important nowadays but some student very like and addiction to the game. * This study will be an effort to improve student performance in learning. * This research will also benefit the students * This study will provide recommendations to divide time and learn to play DOTA. * This study will help students no longer addicted DOTA. 5.0 Literature Review * Today

Addiction Counseling

3129 words - 13 pages status, inabilities, or age. Multicultural counseling proposes that even in the counseling setting, contrasts between the customer and advisor ought to be perceived. The instructor ought to perceive that the customer is not quite the same as the advocate. The canny multicultural instructor knows about contrasts amongst himself and the customer, without needing the customer to resemble him. Addiction is an intense, weakening condition in which

Drugs Addiction

1484 words - 6 pages Drug Addiction Drug addiction is on increasing problem in today’s society. Drug has been increasing immensely among our society today. It can either help us or destroy us from accomplishing our goals or dreams in life. People sometimes feel they are too bright, too powerful, too much in control to become addictive however addiction can trap anyone. It can lead to harming one’s body, causing problems in the person family and also in societies

Alcohol Addiction

2778 words - 12 pages Alcohol AddictionIt is becoming increasingly difficult to ignore the problem of addiction, which affects many individuals, families and communities everyday. This essay is going to look at the prevalence of addiction in Scotland and what the Scottish Government are proposing to do to reduce the damage caused by addiction. There are many other stakeholders in the scheme to make Scotland a better place these are: individuals themselves, friends

Drug Addiction

954 words - 4 pages Kathryn Rapp Composition II 11/12/2012 Drug Addiction Everyone knows at least one person that has been or is addicted to drugs in some way, whether it be cigarettes, alcohol, or illegal drugs. Although, not many of those people ever look past the addiction and wonder why. I’m going to lean more towards the alcohol and illegal drugs that people are addicted to and try to get past the actual problem and try to explain the reasons behind

Gambling Addiction

1098 words - 5 pages Instructor: Content: Mental and Emotional Health Goals: Students will define gambling and learn why gambling addiction is a growing concern. Students will use role play to practice effective ways to say no to gambling. Objective: Students will explain why gambling is a problem. Students will Demonstrate effective refusal skills related to gambling. Time Frame: 55 minutes Materials/Aids: --Pencil / pen

Anime Addiction

2351 words - 10 pages Anime addiction and Its Influence to the Lifestyle of High School students of St. Mary’s College of Tagum _________________________ A Research Presented to ______________________ In Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements in English IV By Acknowledgement This research paper would not be exist without the Help of our parents, who give us advice when we need them, Who inspires to work this research paper, they

Related Papers

Addiction Essay

975 words - 4 pages Addiction Addiction is a term that is used loosely by society, but in the health care system it is viewed as a serious disease. Addiction is psychological or physiological dependence on a substance or practice that is beyond voluntary control. There are many types of addictions, which can range from food to drugs and even gambling and sports. What does addiction mean to you? Is it a dependence on a substance that is beyond your control or is

Addiction Essay

1047 words - 5 pages inpatient or outpatient using treatment contingent upon the stage of addiction that the patient is in. Particularly, sessions of psychopharmacology and aftercare are significant in order for the complete issue of addiction issue to be treated. Detoxification Using an excessive amount of drugs can be the reason as to why the body can become toxic. Detoxification is the process of eliminating and increasingly eliminating the substances that are

Addiction Essay

1709 words - 7 pages past addiction that I had. Addiction does mean things to people and any morals or values they may have. Being sober has taught me a lot of new things. My fiancé has been a saint in my life and has dealt with a lot. Learning from him has brought new meaning to my life. 3. Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs: Identify which stage of Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs you are currently experiencing. Explain which level you hope to experience in the future

Addiction Paper

634 words - 3 pages  Conceptualizing Addiction Angel Salinas University of Phoenix BHSH 455 April 3, 2016 Conceptualizing Addiction Clinical helping professionals have developed a number of psychological, socio-cultural, and biological explanations of the causes associated with different sorts of substance abuse over-dependence on substances. Several models have been developed to conceptualize addiction. But in this regard it