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Advertising Theory Essay

1504 words - 7 pages


Advertising Theory
The Tools of Persuasion



Information (Marketing)

 product features (did you know?) improving brand recognition (now you know.)

Persuasion (Advertising)
  buy it! (don’t you know that you need it?) forming relationships (you know you love it!)

The Goals of Advertising








The Elements of Communication



Smart mediums allow contemporaneous input from senders and receivers.

Receivers may:
◦ select one message over another ◦ skip, replay, store a message

Senders may:
◦ identify receivers and their behavior ◦ ...view middle of the document...

The VALS chart, developed in the late 1970's, is still used today. It is unique in that it sections off the general public into groups based on resources and attitudes towards consumption, not just by demographics or geography.

Primary Motivation
Consumers buy products and services and seek experiences that fulfill their characteristic preferences and give shape, substance, and satisfaction to their lives. An individual's primary motivation determines what in particular about the self or the world is the meaningful core that governs his or her activities. Consumers are inspired by one of three primary motivations: ideals, achievement, and self-expression.

A person's tendency to consume goods and services extends beyond age, income, and education. Energy, self-confidence, intellectualism, novelty seeking, innovativeness, impulsiveness, leadership, and vanity play a critical role.

Taking Aim

To find out what your VALS profile is, take the survey at



A Long Road to Branding



Central route processes are those that require a great deal of thought. They involve careful scrutiny of a persuasive communication to determine the merits of the arguments. Under these conditions, a person’s unique cognitive responses to the message determine the persuasive outcome (i.e., the direction and magnitude of attitude change). So, if favorable thoughts are a result of the elaboration process, the message will most likely be accepted and if unfavorable thoughts are generated, the message will most likely be rejected. Peripheral route processes do not involve elaboration of the message through processing of the merits of the argument. These processes rely on environmental characteristics of the message, like the perceived credibility of the source, quality of the presentation, the attractiveness of the source, or the catchy slogan. (Petty & Cacioppo, 1986)

The Elaboration Likelihood Model (ELM)



Rank's Schema
Hugh Rank (1976) outlined two basic (and opposite) patterns of persuasion:

Intensify Downplay
He argued that these two patterns are common to many persuasive situations.

The Elements of Persuasion



Repetition of a word or visual pattern not only causes it to become remembered (recognized), it also leads some to accept the message as truth. An advertiser of soap powder may focus on how wonderfully white clothes become by repeating the word 'whiteness‘ regardless of the product’s actual effectiveness. Related to the exposure effect. Association links the item with an idea or thing which already has emotional connotation, something desired or feared. The soap powder advertiser may use attractive people or imply that a person who doesn’t use soap will be shunned. Composition of the message can further intensify it. For example, the soap powder ad may start with a person wearing extremely muddy clothes.

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