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Amall; Lmc Essay

3247 words - 13 pages

Lumut (Bryophyta)

Lumut merupakan kelompok tumbuhan yang telah beradaptasi dengan lingkungan darat. Kelompok tumbuhan ini penyebarannya menggunakan spora dan telah mendiami bumi semenjak kurang lebih 350 juta tahun yang lalu. Pada masa sekarang ini Bryophyta dapat ditemukan disemua habitat kecuali di laut (Gradstein,2003).

Dalam skala evolusi lumut berada diantara ganggang hijau dan tumbuhan berpembuluh (tumbuhan paku dan tumbuhan berbiji). Persamaan antara ketiga tumbuhan tersebut adalah ketiganya mempunyai pigmen fotosintesis berupa klorofil A dan B, dan pati sebagai cadangan makanan utama (Hasan dan Ariyanti, 2004).

Perbedaan mendasar antara ganggang dengan lumut dan tumbuhan ...view middle of the document...

* Struktur tubuhnya masih sederhana, belum memiliki jaringan pengangkut.
* Proses pengangkutan air dan zat mineral di dalam tubuh berlangsung secara difusi dan dibantu oleh aliran sitoplasma.
* Hidup di rawa-rawa atau tempat yang lembab.
* Ukuran tinggi tubuh ± 20 cm.
* Dinding sel tersusun atas sellulose.
* Gametangium terdiri atas anteredium dan archegoniom.
* Daun lumut tersusun atas selapis sel berukuran kecil mengandung kloroplas seperti jala, kecuali pada ibu tulang daunnya.
* Hanya mengalami pertumbuhan primer dengan sebuah sel pemula berbentuk tetrader.
* Belum memiliki akar sejati, sehingga menyerap air dan mineral dalam tanah menggunakan rhizoid.
* Rhizoid terdiri atas beberapa lapis deretan sel parenkim.
* Sporofit terdiri atas kapsul dan seta.
* Sporofit yang ada pada ujung gametofit berwarna hijau dan memiliki klorofil, sehingga bisa melakukan fotosintesis.

Kelompok Lumut

Divisio tumbuhan lumut dibagi menjadi beberapa kelas, yaitu:
a.  Musci (lumut daun)
Disebut lumut daun karena pada jenis lumut ini telah ditemukan daun meskipun ukurannya masih kecil. Lumut daun merupakan jenis lumut yang banyak dijumpai sehingga paling banyak dikenal. Contoh-contoh spesiesnya adalah Polytrichum juniperinum, Furaria, Pogonatum cirratum, dan Sphagnum.

b. Hepaticae (Lumut hati)

Lumut hati atau Hepaticae dapat bereproduksi secara seksual dengan peleburan gamet jantan dan betina, secara aseksual dengan pembentukan gemmae. Contohnya adalah Marchantia polymorpha.

c. Anthocerotaceae (Lumut tanduk)

Disebut sebagai lumut tanduk karena morfologi sporofitnya mirip seperti tanduk hewan. Contohnya adalah Anthoceros leavis.

morfologi bervariasi. Ada 2 tipe lumut hati yaitu lumut hati bertalus (thallose liverwort) dan lumut hati berdaun (leafy liverwort). Lumut hati melekat pada substrat dengan rhizoid uniselluler (Hasan dan Ariyanti, 2004). Pada kebanyakan lumut thalloid selain rhizoid juga dijumpai sisik-sisik. Sporofit pada kelompok lumut ini hidupnya hanya sebentar, lunak dan tidak berklorofil. Spora yang telah masak dikeluarkan dari kapsul dengan cara kapsul pecah menjadi 4 bagian memanjang atau lebih (Gradstein, 2003)..

Anthoceropsida atau lumut tanduk mempunyai gametofit bertalus dengan sporofit indeterminate dan berklorofil. Berbeda dengan bryophyta lainnya, sel-sel talus Anthocerpsida mempunyai satu kloroplas besar pada masing-masing selnya. Kapsul berbentuk silindris memanjang dimulai dari bagian ujung kapsul (Hasan dan Ariyanti, 2004).

Bryopsida dikenal sebagai lumut daun atau lumut sejati, merupakan kelas yang terbesar dalam bryophyta. Hampir semua anggotanya mempunyai gametofit yang telah terdifferensiasi sehingga dapat dibedakan bentuk-bentuk seperti batang, cabang dan daun. Sporofit bryopsida berumur panjang, berwarna kecokelatan terdiri atas kaki yang berfungsi untuk menyerap nutrien dari gametofit, dan kapsul yang disangga oleh suatu tangkai disebut seta....

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