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An Analysis of APPLE from the Perspective of Organizational Behavioral Theories
This essay is an analysis of the electronic empire known as APPLE, the innovative company developed and founded by the late Steve Jobs. APPLE is one of the pioneers in the field of home computers and is the creator of the Mac home computer and a host of signature products that begin with the letter “I”, such as the iPad, iPhone, and the iPod. “Organizational behavior is a special field of study of the impact that individuals, groups, and organizational structure have on behavior within organizations, to apply such knowledge improve organizational ...view middle of the document...
“An employee compares his or her job’s inputs with an outcomes ratio. If the employee perceives inequality, he or she he will act to correct the inequity. The employee may lower productivity or reduce the quality of their job” (Al-Zawahreh and Al-Madi, 2012, p. 2). According to Lunenberg, expectancy theory is based on four assumptions: “people join organizations with expectations about their needs, motivations, and past experiences… an individual’s behavior is a result of conscious choice… people want different things from the organization…[and] people will choose among alternatives so as to optimize outcomes for them personally” (2011, p. 1-2). Maslow’s theory of the hierarchy of needs is perhaps one of the most famous of all theoretical assumptions about human behavior. He has been quoted widely and interpreted and re-interpreted by a diversity of professionals in behavior theory. The hierarchy itself is represented by a colourful pyramid. Maslow stated that peoples’ needs move from top to bottom based on that which they need the most, and that which they need the least. At the bottom (or the foundation) are peoples’ basic physiological needs. The needs progress upward with a need for safety, the need to belong, a sense of esteem, cognitive needs, aesthetic needs, self-actualization and transcendence at the top (Maslow 1943).
The concept of justice is of course not new. Back in the days of the Greek Empire the notion of justice was debated by its most notable philosophers such as Plato and Aristotle. “As defined here, organizational justice is a personal evaluation about the ethical and moral standing of managerial conduct. It follows from this approach that producing justice requires management to take the perspective of an employee” (Cropanzano, Bowen & Gilliland, 2007, p. 35). One of the strong motivators in this model/theory is the belief that people want justice and fairness with respect to their place in the workforce. However, the notion of justice is a subjective one, and the ways in which one person will perceive justice may not be the same as with another. In practical terms, organizational justice can be about a myriad of issues in the workplace such as being treated fairly, fair wages for work, gender equality, accessibility for persons with disabilities, and a set of policies that treats everyone in a fair and respectful manner.
Two-factory theory as developed by Hertzberg is also known as Motivation-Hygiene Theory. Back in the late sixties, Hertzberg developed the theory during a research project involving engineers and accountants with respect to their motivations on the job.
Responses about good feelings are generally related to job content (motivators), and responses about bad feelings are associated with job context (hygiene factor). Motivators came about with factors built into the job itself, such as achievement, recognition, responsibility and advancement. Hygiene factors were related to feelings of...