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Analyse The Feasibility Of Two Different Techniques Of Fresh Water Supply In Egypt

2505 words - 11 pages

1. Introduction
Fresh water supply plays an essential factor in a country, such as development of agriculture, industry and tourism (Khalil, 2001:57). Nevertheless, potable water only constitutes nearly 3% in the world water sources. It means that approximately a quarter of world’s population cannot access a sufficient high quality water including Egypt (Karagiannis and Soldatos, 2008: 448). Egypt suffers from water scarcity due to United Nations (2012) states that water scarcity means less than 1000 m3/year/person, while the figure in Egypt is about 963 m3/year/person.

Although, from the geographic perspective,there are adequate water resources in Egypt, such as Mediterranean Sea, Red ...view middle of the document...

Desalinating water is an indispensable part in the majority of Arab countries, specifically using plants of Multi-Stage Flash (45%) and Reverse Osmosis (RO) (42%), and it have experienced about 100 years since the first desalination plants introduced in Egypt (El-Sadek, 2010: 876-877). It makes desalination more profitable in terms of coastal country. Historically, there were three different types of Electrodialysis established in Egypt since 1975 (El-Sadek, 2010:878). Nowadays, Egypt not only engages in public sector actively but also encourages private sector to find the most suitable desalination technologies.

High Aswan Dam (HAD) is a giant project which costs the government 11 years to build (Strzepek et al, 2008: 119). It impacts the economy and energy of Egypt, for example the hydropower support and the floods or drought defence. Although it contributes to the development of agriculture, it may break the fragile eco-system and reduce the quantity of Nile water. According to (Abu-Zeid and El- Shibini, 2010:215), the TDS (total dissolved solids) rises at 185 mg/l after construction of the HAD and surrounding environment suffered from increasingly growth of aquatic weeds.
3. Requirements
The first consideration should be cost. According to World Bank (2012), the income level of Egypt is defined as lower middle income. The cost plays one of the most significant factors in water provision.

The second requirement is environment. As bordering Mediterranean Sea and Red Sea (CIA, 2012), the methods took in Egypt should be focused on the eco-system. Environmental problem could influence life of human beings and balance of nature. The authorities cannot implement it at the cost of environment.

The last factor is social impact. Because of complex process and giant project, constructing desalination and dam may cause some social impact. Thus, these methods should consider this indispensable influence.

4. Presentation of option
4.1 Desalination
Younos (2005:1) points out that desalination is a process to remove salts and other substances from seawater so that it can be used as potable water. Some desalination plants use electrical energy, while majority of them use fossil fuels which are associated with CO2 (greenhouse gas) emissions (Lamei: 2007: 1748).

4.2 Aswan Dam
New Hamoshire (2009) claims that “a dam is any artificial barrier which impounds or diverts water which has a height of 6 feet or more”. Precisely, Aswan Dam is a giant project which is constituted by key dam, spillway and power station.

5. Comparison of Options
5.1 cost
The most influential factor affecting the total cost in desalting water system is the consumption of energy (Lattemann et al, 2010:15). It is also claimed that the main energy used in RO is electricity. Nevertheless, RO is more economical than Electrodialysis Reverse in a high salinity water area, and the surface salinity in Red Sea is very high (42,000-47,000 ppm). Thus, Egypt became the...

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