Analyze the Political Power of Different
Groups in the National Peopleâ€™s Congress Standing Committee (NPCSC)
Yu Hai Yue (3035085592)
Lam Wai Chi(3035099139)
Li Si Yao Â (3035084964)
1.Introduction to the argument
Nowadays people are more concerned about their political right. As the economy in China grows quickly and China plays a more and more important role in the world, plenty of issues (like dictatorship) about the political power in China occur. One of the most important committees in China is the NPCSC. Â Because of its vital status in Chinese politics, whether it can represent the citizens and stand for them is obviously significant. Normally, group with larger population ...view middle of the document...
A Chairman, Chinaâ€™s top legislator, leads it. The current Chairman is Zhang Dejiang. Most members in NPCSC have strong personal influence, and the bill passed by NPCSC usually has the strongest legal effect. In our report, we select the 10th standing committee that has 175 members to analysis political power in different directions. A motion, proposal or a bill can only be effective on condition that more than half of the NPCSC members vote for it. That is to say there must be at least 88 members in a winning coalition.
3.Introductions for two methods to calculate the political power (SSI and DPI)
To simplify, we will consider the voting system in NPCSC as a yes-no voting system with no one abstaining from voting, and the member in the same group will vote the same choice.
SSI refers to Shapleyâ€“Shubik power index.  It is used to measure the power of a player or a party in a voting game. Â It can also show the power distribution that cannot be seen from the statistics. Here is the formula of SSI and an example.
SSI=all permutations Â for which i is pivotal/n!
(That i is a pivotal means it can turn a Â losing coalition to a winning coalition)
The sum of all the playersâ€™ SSI equals to 1.
Example: In the weighted majority game [14; 7,9,6,5]
Let us calculate the SSI of player 1.
When player 1 is the first, he is not pivotal for any permutation. [1, 2, 3, 4], [1,2,4,3],[1,3,2,4],[1,3,4,2],[1,4,2,3],[1,4,3,2]
When player 1 is the second, he/she is pivotal only in [2,1,3,4],[2,1,4,3]
When player 1 is the third, he/she is pivotal in [3,4,1,2],[4,3,1,2]
When player 1 is the fourth, he/she is not pivotal in any permutations.
SSI for player 1= 4/24=1/6 (the political power of player 1)
We use SSI because NPCSC has Â lots of members who Â have different backgrounds, for example: party, districts, occupations etc. Therefore, people with similar background belong to a single group with different weights.
DPI refers to the Deegan-Packel Index of Power. Â It can show the power distribution for the voting games that satisfy three conditions. Firstly, the minimum winning coalitions are taken into account. Secondly, all minimum winning coalitions have the same probability of forming. Thirdly,the amount of power a player derives from belonging to some minimum winning coalition is the same as that derived by any other player belonging to that same minimal winning coalition.
Here is the equation for TDPP and DPI.
TDPP (xi)= P/n1+p/n2+..... P/nk
P=the number of voters in the parties
xi stands for the player i. n1, n2, n3â€¦..n4 are the number of voters in different minimum winning coalitions.
DPI (Xi)= TDPP (Xi)/Sum of TDPP of all parties
In the weighted majority game [14; 7,9,6,5]
For the player 1, the minimum winning coalition is [1,2] only
TDPP (player 1)=7/16
TDPP (player 2)=9/16+9/15+9/14
TDPP (player 3)=6/15
TDPP (player 4)=5/14
We use DPI...