Analyzing Psychological Disorders
December 2, 2012
Analyzing Psychological Disorders
Schizophrenia, drug abuse, and anxiety are all complex psychological disorders. When helping someone that suffers from these disorders, you must understand how and why they work the way that they do. All three disorders come with symptoms that can cause people not blend in with society and live a normal life. The right kinds of treatment can help people to overcome the symptoms of these disorders and live a normal life, but they are not curable.
Schizophrenia affects the most crucial parts of the brain: the forebrain, the hindbrain, ...view middle of the document...
Schizophrenia causes brain damage in these areas such as enlarged ventricles because of brain shrinkage and smaller prefrontal cortexes and temporal lobes.
There are two main casual factors of schizophrenia: genes and the environment. Schizophrenia occurs in about 1% of the population but when a person has close relatives that suffer from the disorder the percentage a person developing it rises about 10%. Studies have proven that when one identical twin suffers from schizophrenia, the other twin has a 45% chance of developing it. There are several genes that have been linked to the disorder which causes predisposition for the disorder but just because a person carries the gene for it does not mean that they will develop the disorder. It is believed that the environmental factors such as birth complications, early infections, autoimmune reactions, toxins, trauma, and stress is the main cause of development when the gene is present These complications usually change the course of neurodevelopment which leads to the development of schizophrenia (Pinel, 2012).
There are three main types of symptoms of schizophrenia that lead to a proper diagnosis. The positive symptoms include delusions, hallucinations, and racing thoughts. The negative symptoms include apathy, lack of emotions, and poor social functioning. Cognitive symptoms include disorganized thoughts, difficulty concentrating or following directions, difficulty completing tasks, and memory problems. The early signs of schizophrenia usually begin to show between the ages of 15 and 25. Early signs tend to include physical symptoms, abnormal feelings and emotions, and different moods. Physical symptoms include blank facial expressions, acute senses, infrequent blinking while gazing at nothing, clumsiness, sleep problems, tremors, eye movements, irregular gestures and posture, speedy or slow movements. Abnormal feelings and emotions include anhedonia, no feelings or desires, and depersonalization. Moods usually occur as anger, hostility, resentment, depression, low motivation and energy, severe anxiety, and rapidly changes of moods with no reasons ("Schizophrenia.com", 1996-2010). There is not a typical case of schizophrenia. Most cases include different symptoms which make it hard to diagnose. The disorder can also appear later in life with many of the same symptoms.
The neural basis of schizophrenia is still not completely understood. The main theory of schizophrenia is known as the dopamine theory which has been proven not totally correct. It has been revised several times since research on this theory began. The theory is based on how schizophrenia affects the D2 receptor in the brain but new research has shown that dopamine, glutamate, and serotonin neurotransmitters are involved which leads to evidence that not only is the D2 receptor affected but also the D1, D4, and serotonin receptors play a role in the disorder. There have been three main findings proven to be accurate in brain...