The US Civil Rights Movement in the 1950s and 1960s
The US Civil Rights Movement usually refers to the political struggles to end discrimination, economic disadvantages, citizenship rights and to end legal racial segregation against African American; particularly in the South. Many of the active Civil Rights Movement and organizations were involve, such as NAACP (National Association for the Advancement of Colored People), SNCC (Student Non-violent Co-coordinating Committee), CORE (Congress of Racial Equality), SCLC (Southern Christian Leadership Conference) and later on the more radical Black Power Movement.
African Americans were discriminated in every aspect of ...view middle of the document...
As a result, African American children attended schools that were lacking the needs of students on day to day basis; following the case of eight-year-old Linda Brown in Alabama, the Supreme Court demanded the desegregation of all schools and in 1955 it ordered officials to co-operate with this decision for bringing African and White American students together in schools. But in the South, many planned on the continuing of segregated education.
In 1957, nine African American students tried to attend Central High School in Little Rock, Arkansas and later were know as â€˜The Little Rock Nineâ€™. They had to endure the violence from the mob lining the streets that led to the school, Governor Faubus sent in National Guards to restore order and â€˜preserve orderâ€™ but it degenerated into mob rule and President Eisenhower, concerned about integration more than desegregation ordered 1000 federal troops into Little Rock and two days later the nine African American students entered Central High with an escort from the United States Army. But when the nation guards took over a month later, violence against the nine students reoccur. Desegregation lacked strong support from either state or federal government and remained difficult to enforce.
The event that occurred in Alabama to Rosa Parks triggered another phase of the Civil Rights Movement, tired from a long dayâ€™s work, she refused to give up her seat and was arrested because the law reserved the front seats of the bus for the whites but African American had to sit in the back. As a respected member of the NAACP, the African American community who consist of 75% of bus users responded with a boycott of the cityâ€™s buses that went for 382 days and was an addition to African American demands for equal rights and treatment from the bus driver and the positions for African American drivers, these became known as the Montgomery Bus Boycott. The bus companies faced massive financial losses but refused to give in, the bus companies had the support of the white community, especially those who is affiliated with the Ku Klux Klan.
Martin Luther King, a Baptist minister working in Montgomery became president of the Montgomery Improvement Association (MIA), the organization that guided the boycott. The boycott ended in 1956 when the Supreme Court ruled in favour of the MIAâ€™s case for desegregation with the bus companies agreed to allow African American the same rights as others do. The actions of the Civil Rights Movement had caught President Eisenhowerâ€™s attention; as his need to gain support from African American voters, President Eisenhower introduce the 1957 Civil Rights Act, it declared discrimination to be illegal and established the Federal Civil Rights Commission to prosecute anyone in breach of this law. But increase violence against African American led President Eisenhower to declare a new bill, The 1960 Civil Rights Act, which created penalties for anyone violating a court order to...