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Anthro Terms Essay

4831 words - 20 pages

Anthropology
Unit 1 – online
Anthropology is the study of humans, past and present.
There are 4 areas of Anthropology-
1. sociocultural - examine social patterns and practices across cultures, with a special interest in how people live in particular places and how they organize, govern, and create meaning
2. , biological/physical - seek to understand how humans adapt to diverse environments, how biological and cultural processes work together to shape growth, development and behavior, and what causes disease and early death
3. archaeology - study past peoples and cultures, from the deepest prehistory to the recent past, through the analysis of material remains, ranging from artifacts ...view middle of the document...

- Archaeology: The study of material remains to reconstruct the lives of people who lived in the past.
o Prehistoric/pre-contact Archaeology – The study of ancient cultures that did not possess writing systems to record their history
o Historical Archaeology – The study of past cultures that possessed written records of their history
- Sociocultural Anthropology: The study of human behavior in contemporary cultures
o Ethnography – The collection of descriptive material on a culture
o Ethnology – The comparative study of cultures to explain human behavior
o Ethnohistory – The study of cultures from the recent past using oral histories, archaeology sites, and written accounts left by explorers, missionaries, and traders.
- Linguistic Anthropology: The study of how people use language to relate to one another and how they develop and transmit culture
o Descriptive Linguistics – The study of patterns and structure in language
o Historical Linguistics: The study of language origins, language change, and the relationships between languages
o Sociolinguistics: The study of language in its social setting
Culture Bond – Theories about the world and reality based on the assumption and values of one’s own culture
Participant observation: A method of learning a people’s culture through direct observations and participation in their everyday life.
Culture Shock – The difficulty anthropologists have in adapting to a new culture that differs markedly from their own
Holistic Perspective: A fundamental principle of anthropology, that the various parts of culture must be viewed in the broadest possible context to understand their interconnections and interdependence

Key information/ respondents: Member of the culture who help the ethnographer interpret what she or he observes. The term “respondents” or “subjects” is lately preferred over “informants”, since the latter has negative connotations associated with providing inside information to authorities.
Popular culture: The culture of our everyday lives (tv, sports, fashion, music etc)
Cross-cultural comparison – Comparing one particular aspect of a culture with that same aspect in others.
Gender – A set of standards and behaviors attached to individuals, usually but not always based on biological sex
Feminist anthropology – A subfield of anthropology that investigates gender and gender relations and that critically analyzes gender roles, positions, and experiences.
Androcentrism – Male centeredness
Qualitative research – The gathering of data based on interviews, documents, and participant observation to understand human social behavior
Quantitative Research – The gathering of statistical and measurable data

UNIT 2
Culture: The shared ideals, values, and beliefs that people use to interpret experience and to generate behavior and that are reflected by their behavior
Society: A group of people who live in the same region, speak the same language and are independent
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