Term Paper Handbook for APA Format
CONTENTS APA Style Research Paper 1 Sample Title Page 2 Sample Abstract 3 Sample First Page 4 In-Text Documentation (Overview) 5 Sample Text Page 6 In-Text Documentation (with Examples) 7-8 References Format 9 Sample References Page 10 APA Style Documentation Models for References Page 11 Book 11 Article or Chapter in an Edited Book 11 Article in a Reference Book or Entry in a Dictionary 11 Pamphlet 12 Article from a Scholarly Journal 12 Article from a Daily Newspaper 12 Article from a Magazine 13 Article with a Digital Object Identifier (DOI) Number 13 Periodical Article on the Internet 13 Source from an Internet Site 14 Article Found on a Library ...view middle of the document...
Researchers have noticed that both creole languages and the speech of second language learners contain simplified grammar and vocabulary. Schumann (1978) based his acculturation model of second language acquisition on the comparison with creole languages, emphasizing the importance of social factors in language learning, but other researchers have been critical of this model. This paper concludes that while the similarities between language learning and creole languages reflect general linguistic processes of simplification and elaboration, second language acquisition is an individual process that is influenced by psychological as well as social factors.
SECOND LANGUAGE ACQUISITION Second Language Acquisition and Creole Languages
"Dem recognise say human beings get dignity wey dey with us and rights wey go make all of us friendly with each other, so tay, we all come be like one family" ("Dis Come," 2003, p. 18). This sentence from the Universal Declaration of Human Rights is in one of the many creole languages found around the world. Some might think of this as "broken English," but linguists have found that creoles, like all human languages, are governed by their own grammatical rules. Creoles are sometimes described as mixed languages. Sebba (1996) explained, "In linguistics, creole is a technical term meaning a language which comes into being through contact between two or more languages" (p. 50). Creoles form when speakers of different languages live in close contact and must communicate in a common language. For example, Jamaican Creole developed when slaves who spoke different African languages had to communicate with each other in English, the language of the slaveholders. Jamaican Creole and other English-based creoles take much of their vocabulary from English, "while elements of the pronunciation, grammar, vocabulary, and oral traditions can be traced to Africa" (Sebba, 1996, p. 51). Researchers have noticed similarities between creoles and second language learning. Sebba (1996) pointed out, "usually creoles come about through a situation of partial language learning" (p. 51). Whinnom (1971) drew a parallel between creole languages and second language acquisition (SLA), calling them both forms of "linguistic hybridization" (p. 91). Schuman (1974, 1978a, 1978b) extended the concept of interlanguage by comparing it to the creation of a creole. He defined interlanguage as "a systematic attempt to deal with the target language data, … a separate but nevertheless genuine linguistic system" (Schumann, 1974, p. 145). Creole languages may help us to understand SLA as a process of creating and refining an individual's linguistic system. Like creoles, the interlanguage of second language learners is simplified in specific
In-Text Documentation—Overview Study the examples of in-text citations on pages 3 and 6 of the following student essay. The authors and dates in parentheses are examples of in-text citations: (Sebba, 1996,...