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Arable Crop Production Essay

1366 words - 6 pages

SCHOOL OF VOCATIONAL AND TECHNICAL EDUCATION

FEDERAL COLLEGE OF EDUCATION (SPECIAL), OYO

AN ASSIGNMENT SUBMITTED TO THE DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURAL EDUCATION

COURSE CODE: AGE 121

COURSE TITLE: ARABLE CROP PRODUCTION

QUESTION: DISCUSS THE INFLUENCE OF CLIMATE ON

AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTION

BY

ABDUL-RASHEED MUHAMM

DEPARTMENT: SHI/AGE

DR. S. O. AGBATO

AND

MRS. SALAMI

LECTURER IN CHARGE

Climate change induced by increasing greenhouse gases is likely to affect crops differently from region to region. For example, average crop yield is expected to drop ...view middle of the document...

Impact of climate change on agriculture
Despite technological advances, such as improved varieties, genetically modified organisms, and irrigation systems, weather is still a key factor in agricultural productivity, as well as soil properties and natural communities. The effect of climate on agriculture is related to variabilities in local climates rather than in global climate patterns. The Earth's average surface temperature has increased by 1.5°F {0.83°C} since 1880. Consequently, agronomists consider any assessment has to be individually consider each local area.
On the other hand, agricultural trade has grown in recent years, and now provides significant amounts of food, on a national level to major importing countries, as well as comfortable income to exporting ones. The international aspect of trade and security in terms of food implies the need to also consider the effects of climate change on a global scale.
A study published in Science suggests that, due to climate change, "southern Africa could lose more than 30% of its main crop, maize, by 2030. In South Asia losses of many regional staples, such as rice, millet and maize could top 10%".
The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) has produced several reports that have assessed the scientific literature on climate change. The IPCC Third Assessment Report, published in 2001, concluded that the poorest countries would be hardest hit, with reductions in crop yields in most tropical and sub-tropical regions due to decreased water availability, and new or changed insect pest incidence. In Africa and Latin America many rainfed crops are near their maximum temperature tolerance, so that yields are likely to fall sharply for even small climate changes; falls in agricultural productivity of up to 30% over the 21st century are projected. Marine life and the fishing industry will also be severely affected in some places.
In the long run, the climatic change could affect agriculture in several ways:
• productivity, in terms of quantity and quality of crops
• agricultural practices, through changes of water use (irrigation) and agricultural inputs such as herbicides, insecticides and fertilizers
• environmental effects, in particular in relation of frequency and intensity of soil drainage (leading to nitrogen leaching), soil erosion, reduction of crop diversity
• rural space, through the loss and gain of cultivated lands, land speculation, land renunciation, and hydraulic amenities.
• adaptation, organisms may become more or less competitive, as well as humans may develop urgency to develop more competitive organisms, such as flood resistant or salt resistant varieties of rice.
They are large uncertainties to uncover, particularly because there is lack of information on many specific local regions, and include the uncertainties on magnitude of climate change, the effects of technological changes on productivity,...

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