1. Dornic order and Ionic order
2. The metopes, the pedimental sculptures and the frieze
3. Flying buttresses, pointed arch and the ribbed vault.
Robert of Luzarches, Thomas de Cormont and Renaud de Cormont.
4. The Cathedral of St. John the Divine`s east end is built in the Romanesque style. The solid granite columns surround the High Altar and ambulatory, the tiled barrel-vault ceilings and the crossing under the dome are Romanesque style.
5. Recurrent cycles with central axis. The God`s golden circle, the Christ`s golden holy circle, the gold circle within a dove in it (the holy spirit), and the monstrance circle.
6. 5 bays
7. Northern Europe. Between ...view middle of the document...
The school of Athens includes a large number of figures and a complex composition. The gesture of Aristos and Plato is a symbol of philosophy divergence. There are Plato and Aristotle in the center of the fresco, and philosophers to the left side of Plato, and people concerned with nature, geometry and humanity on the right side. Many of them are in energetic conversation, while others appear isolated with the crowd. The painting composes abundant history and each figure enjoys a unique story. So these figures can perfectly fit in the context of school of Athens. On the right side of the painting, we can see a self-portrait of Raphael looking thorough the picture communicating with us. According to Alberti`s theory, Raphael conforms to historia painting. As for the reception of light, the 2-dimensional surface, by using perspective and foreshortening, appears 3-dimensional, creating a spatial feeling that Plato is walking toward us. The vanishing point is between Aristotle and Plato. And Raphael creates sense of balance by putting two crowds of people symmetrically, making these figures present to us in more harmony way. The colors of the figures gathering and discussing are lighter than figures isolated. Clothes of Plato and Aristotle are lighter than others around them. The sky color is gradually deeper to create 3 dimensional visual experiences. The light of the figures near the picture plane is slightly darker than figures on the stairs.
2. The spatial experience of Parthenon differ from Amiens Cathedral because people concern more about exterior of Parthenon and more interior of Amiens Cathedral. And Parthenon`s spatial experiences are without visual spatial expansion. On the contrary, Parthenon emphasizes circumambulation. In order to visit Parthenon, tourists should enter Acropolis from West and walk along the pass way around the Parthenon toward East. On the way to the entrance of the Parthenon, tourists will see columns, frieze, metopes and at lest one of the pediments closely. Since the frieze is continuously, it`s easy to lead people walking clockwise. At the meantime, along the way, tourists can see architectures such as, older temple of Athena, sanctuary of Zeus Peleus and altar of Athena. These historical relics will impact tourists because the remains are huge and carefully carved. Furthermore, since the Parthenon is the home of goddess Athena, common people should worship outside and only priest can enter to serve the goddess. Beside, Parthenon construction is emphasized exterior. The columns and stairs follow the entasis. The whole architecture follows the golden rule. However, spatial experiences of Amiens Cathedral are from interior. Though Amiens Cathedral exterior is beautiful and elaborately built, the interior is more impressing. Visitors entering the west portal and walking toward east will experience a progressively spatial difference from nave to the choir. Walking along each bay, visitors will experience dynamic...