Artificial Intelligence, Impact on Society
“It is the science and engineering of making intelligent machines, especially intelligent computer programs. It is related to the similar task of using computers to understand human intelligence, but AI does not have to confine itself to methods that are biologically observable.” (It is the science, 2001) “The goal of research on AI is to understand the nature of thought and intelligent behavior and to design intelligent systems.” (Copeland, J. 2000). Some of the processes for AI are learning, reasoning, and self-correction. The lingering questions then become ...view middle of the document...
” Copeland, J (2000). In 1936 Alan Turing designed the Universal Computing Machine, which did exactly what he described.
In 1941, John Atanasoff designed the first electronic computer. J. Mauchly was a guest in the house of Atanasoff from June 13th to June 18th 1941 and during this time Mauchly spent many hours discussing the Atanasoff-Berry computer and the theory of the computer with John Atanasoff and Clifford Berry. On September 30th, 1941, Mauchly proposed to Atanasoff that they work together to create this computer. They created a calculating machine that assisted the military in writing artillery-firing tables.
In 1951 Christopher Strachery coded a checkers program for the pilot model of Turing's Automatic Computing Engine (The Universal Computing Machine). Because of coding errors and hardware change Strachey’s program did not succeed. However, Strachery did not give up and by the summer of 1952 his program could “…play a complete game of draughts at a reasonable speed.” Copeland, J. 2000. From there AI began developing slowly.
In the 1970’s the advancement in AI was the creation of the Expert Systems. The Expert Systems focused on predicting the probability of a solution under set conditions. In 1984 Buchnan & Shortliffe created a program, MYCIN that reasons about bacterial infections. This program was based entirely on large systems of procedural rules. The MYCIN Expert System was designed to diagnose and assist in the treatment of blood infections. It was never used at first because there were people who didn’t like the idea of using machines in medicine. The thought of having something relatively new and unknown to make official diagnoses and interventions often put fear and discontent in those professionals in the medical field. This system attempted to diagnose patients based on reported systems and medical test results.
Artificial Intelligence programs are being used today to detect cancer. “One drop of blood might make the difference in early detection of cancer. Researchers conduct the test by placing a single drop of blood on a metal bar. The bar is then inserted into a vacuum chamber and scanned by a laser beam. An artificial intelligence computer system then produces a chart of the body’s proteins resembling a bar code. This chart is then compared to those of cancer patients and non-cancer patients. Results from the machine are amazing predictors, ranging from 93 percent to 100 percent accuracy.”
“In 2050, 80.1 million Americans will be over age 65, according to government figures. The ratio of U.S. workers to retirees, meanwhile, will shrink to 2 to 1.” “Researchers in artificial intelligence today are beginning a race to offset an epidemic of age-related memory loss.” Bard, M. 2002. Scientists in the emerging field of assisted cognition are designing AI systems to care for Alzheimer’s patients without any direct human assistance. Assisted cognition systems meld artificial-intelligence software,...