This website uses cookies to ensure you have the best experience. Learn more

Assessing A Film Collection, Film Damage And Decay Problems, Definitions Of Digital Preservation, And The Feasibility Of Digitally Preserving Moving I

1774 words - 8 pages

With the proliferation of information in the Digital Age and the advent of new technologies, digitization and digital preservation are hot topics in the archive and librarian worlds. More and more information, regardless of its form as a book, video, or audio recording, is being born digitally. Joan M. Reitz defines born digital material as “work created from scratch in electronic form, for example, a hypermedia thesis or dissertation, or an electronic journal that has no print counterpart.” This definition includes the majority of the information created in the Digital Age, but what about information not born digitally? Materials that are not born digitally pose several problems for ...view middle of the document...

Identifying the type of film stock: is it nitrate, acetate, or polyester,
4. Identifying the type of film elements present: either a camera original or a collection of elements that make up a film (negatives, A& B rolls, soundtracks, etc.).
These first steps are crucial to novices as well as experienced moving images archivists because their answers will provide vital information about the film and guide the librarian or archivist how to proceed. Each film gauge and film stock has its own peculiarities, which can complicate storage and conversion to digital formats. For example, nitrate based film stock is extremely flammable and must be stored properly to ensure the safety of the film and the storage facility. The National Fire Protection Association has published the NFPA 40: Standard for the Storage and Handling of Cellulose Nitrate Film, which is a guide to the proper storage of nitrate film. The National Film Preservation Foundation has developed the following table to assist librarians and archivists in identifying their types of films and associated dates:
Support Dates of Use Gauge
Nitrate 1893—early 1950s 35mm
Acetate 1909—present 35mm, 28mm, 16mm, 9.5mm, Regular 8mm,
Super 8mm
Polyester Mid 1950s—present 35mm, 16mm, some Super 8mm

After determining the film gauge, the film stock, and the type of film elements, the archivist is ready to proceed to the next stage: determining the condition of the film. Film can experience any number of damage and deterioration, which can limit or prevent digital preservation. One type of damage applicable to all of the film gauges and stock is mechanical damage. Mechanical damage is physical damage, which can be anything from tears to scratches. Depending on the nature of the mechanical damage, preservationists can make repairs to damaged films. Scratches, though, permanently damage film. Another type of damage is mold, mildew, and fungus. This type of harm usually comes from the improper storage of the films. Mold, mildew, and fungus literally eat the film. If caught the problem is caught early and the film is moved to a cold, dry area, further damage from mold, mildew, and fungus can prevented. A third type of deterioration that can plague films is chemical damage. Nitrate decay and acetate decay are two important types of chemical damage, which relate to the type of films tock. The National Film Preservation Foundation identifies the following five steps as the five stages of nitrate decay:
1. Image fading. Brownish discoloration of emulsion. Faint noxious odor.
2. Sticky emulsion. Faint noxious odor.
3. Emulsion softens and blisters with gas bubbles. More pungent odor.
4. Film congeals into a solid mass. Strong noxious odor.
5. Film disintegrates into brownish powder.
Sadly, once a nitrate film reaches the third step in the decay process, the film cannot be duplicated. Similar to the importance of early identification of mold,...

Other Essays Like Assessing A Film Collection, Film Damage And Decay Problems, Definitions Of Digital Preservation, And The Feasibility Of Digitally Preserving Moving I

Review Of The Film "God's And Generals"

1515 words - 7 pages casualties possible, and not about the soldiers' entertainment.I learned that the majority of the Union soldiers did not join the army to free the slaves, but to preserve the Union. Many of them did not care about the slaves, but cared about preserving their country and its rights.I think that Gods and Generals is a great film. I felt as if I was experiencing the beginning of the Civil War and the battles as I watched. The scenery looked how I would've

The Development Of Photography And Film

3376 words - 14 pages traced back centuries; however it is the still photograph that impacted film the most. The still photograph, which was first taken in 1827 by Claude Niepce, and which later led to the development of moving pictures, was in itself made possible by the invention of the Camera Obscura. The camera obscura, just like ‘Black Maria,’ was a darkened room in the shape of a cube or box that had an opening on one side which let light in, and then produced

A Comparison Of The Two Film Versions Of Romeo And Juliet

2198 words - 9 pages A Comparison of the Two Film Versions of Romeo and Juliet I have been studying the prologue to 'Romeo and Juliet' written by the magnificent playwright, William Shakespeare

The Speed of Film

1632 words - 7 pages specific field of expertise. For example, set designers only designs the set. This is the same for a director; he or she watches over the production and makes the hard decisions. A producer gets to be more creative with their work. Dudley Andrew, a professor of film, says, “I find it more useful… to build an overall view of film” (Concepts of Film Theory, page 3) which is exactly what a producer does. Since they are observing the project as a

Historical Accurateness of the Film Oranges and Sunshine

1119 words - 5 pages The film Oranges and Sunshine, directed by Jim Loach and released in 2010, traces the fight she led on behalf of thousands of child-deportees whose lives were irreparably scarred by the trauma of separation, exile and frequently brutal imprisonment. With the screenplay by Rona Munro, based on the non-fiction novel Empty Cradles by Margaret Humphreys – the protagonist of the film – Oranges and Sunshine is a very moving film that does

Damage and Results of Sandy

520 words - 3 pages The article that i chose to write about is called "Hopes of post-Sandy spending drive rally for recovery companies", written by Nick Zieminski and Lynn Adler. Hurricane Sandy or "Superstorm Sandy" as most people say occurred on Sunday, October twenty ninth and killed approximately thirty people. This massive storm caused tens of billions in damage up and down the east coast, mainly affecting the states of New York, Deleware, New Jersey, and New

The Color of Paradise, Film Analysis, Review and Critc

730 words - 3 pages embarrassed to let her know about his blind son. While rebelling against the will of the boy’s grandmother, Mohammad’s father feels that apprenticing him to the blind carpenter, in a bid to master the art of trade, could eliminate his disgrace to the family (Ebert). This paper will discuss in details about the setting, the plot, the sound and the reality of the situation in the movie. The setting of the film is unique in its own ways. When the

Carrie-an Analysis of Novel and Film

1805 words - 8 pages Stephen King’s novel Carrie not only gained notoriety through his words, but also through the film version as well. There have been several versions produced cinematically, each one slightly altering certain aspects of the novel and producing their own variation and interpretation. There are always going to be certain variances between the novel and the film version unless the author of the book is perhaps brought-on as a creative consultant or

Fellowship Of The Ring Is The First Part Of The Trilogy Film. This Film Anaysis Is Completely Detailed And Reviewed

2128 words - 9 pages adults as well as children. With a fine cast assembled, beautiful production values in every scene and a story you know can't be beat, this film would surely appeal to everyone. Kids ranging 10 and below could encounter slight difficulty in understanding the lines and the meaning of each plot. Therefore, I can say that Fellowship of the Ring is well suited for eleven-year old kids and above. I know teenagers and adults are ravishingly excited to see

Definitions Of Tourism And Tourists

954 words - 4 pages have produced many precise definitions for both ‘tourist’ and ‘tourism’ but no definition of either term has become widely recognised. According to Smith (1988), he suggests that there “probably never will be a single definition of tourism” as economists, psychologists and geographers perceive certain things about tourism in their field (Smith 1988 as cited in Leiper 1995:3). However, any approach to defining tourism can be useful for the persons

How the Structure of Film Amazing Grace Is Such a Critical Part of the Film?

2113 words - 9 pages Amazing Grace is an engaging and educating film because of the complex structure that is created by director Michael Apted. It’s woven in a way that effectively conveys William Wilberforce’s deepest emotions and beliefs to the audience. In this film, Apted has to tell a story to entertain and capture his audience’s attention on the sheer determination to end the cruel era of the slave trade. He certainly does this, through thought-provoking use

Related Papers

Film In A Digital Era Essay

1189 words - 5 pages wasn't even a word yet), and since monitors at the time defaulted to a lower resolution, I didn't need that many pixels to get by. I was willing to trade the inconvenience of having to get film developed for the lower resolution, terrible light sensors, and slow shutter speeds. Nowadays, digital cameras finally improved enough to conquer its film counterparts. It's gotten to the point where you can't even get 35MM developed at your local Wal

Film Vs Digital Essay

823 words - 4 pages Technology has grown to heights only impaired by our imagination, advancing within itself to become what we choose of it. In this new age, we find ourselves with many options on what to use. A camera is no different, providing many choices. There are film cameras that are one time use disposable, and thousand dollar digital cameras designed to shutter in multiple frames. The story of the camera is a new one in comparison to the wheel, but it has

This Essay Discusses The Gender Issue That Took Place In The Film "Boys Don't Cry". It Was Written For My Womens Studies Call And I Recieved An "A" For It's Content

336 words - 2 pages controversial topic in the movie and in the real world, as well. Some people refer to Brandon's "condition" as a sexual identity crisis disorder. I think that Brandon's desire to be of the opposite sex may have stemmed from her childhood and perhaps her relationship with her father. It is obvious that Brandon has issues with her past. This is demonstrated by her excessive lying. However, everyone has issues concerning their childhood, and to label

Film Analysis Of Akeelah And The Bee

1788 words - 8 pages because it was a film I have not seen yet as well as I felt like it would be a great film to analyze because of the black community the film is based in due to the fact that a lot of neglect and racism happens in black communities. Depending on the surroundings of these communities, children react differently based on what occurs. In this film, children and youth are depicted very differently depending on their surroundings as well as family situation