Associate Level Material
Assumptions and Fallacies
Mapu T. Nagbe
HUM/111- Critical and Creative Thinking
March 23, 2014
Professor Vernon Lee
Assumptions and Fallacies
Write a 150- to 200-word response to each of the following sets of questions:
What are assumptions? How do you think assumptions might interfere with critical thinking? What might you do to avoid making assumptions in your thinking?
* Assumption is a natural phase of our everyday life. According to Ruggiero, V. R. (2012, p. 185), “To assume is to take something for granted, to expect that things will be a certain way because they have been that way in the past or because you want them to be that way.” It can cause one to miss the ability to judge a situation right.
* Assumptions interfere with critical thinking in that it makes one loses the ability to make sound judgment. Some of the assumptions that hinder critical thinking process are assuming ...view middle of the document...
* Visualizing each situation will enable one to avoid mistakes and embarrassment. Assumptions can interfere with our critical thinking skills because we do not ask questions, search for information, criticize, and investigate information. We repeatedly assume that we know the answers to everything. In order to avoid making assumptions in our thinking, one has to remember to ask questions and assume we know nothing.
What are fallacies? How are fallacies used in written, oral, and visual arguments? What might you do to avoid fallacies in your thinking?
* According to Paul, R. and Elder, L. (2008, p. 6), it mentioned that “fallacy derives from two Latin words, fallax (“deceptive”) and fullere (to deceive”).” Fallacy is also defined by the Marian Webster dictionary as “a wrong belief: a false or mistaken idea and an often plausible argument using false or invalid inference.”
* Established along the definition of fallacy, one can instantly say that it is the imperfections and limitation that exist on one line of logical thinking. In one case a person is capable to recognize fallacious in their ‘communication and daily life, it will be easy for them to identify fallacies within their environment. Nevertheless, understanding fallacy gives one the ability to easily distinguish it.
* Fallacy exists in our daily life, it can be found in mass media, commercials, newspapers and wireless communications. In order to avoid the fallacy from our thinking, we have to avoid faulty generalization, jumping to conclusion, missing the point of an argument and being unrealistic. Another way to avoid fallacies in your thinking is to opine about what we say and use excellent rhetoric to find others on your side.
* Paul, R. & Elder, L. (2008). Fallacies: The Art of Mental Trickery and Manipulation. The foundation of Critical Thinking.
* Ruggiero, V. R. (2012). The Art of thinking: A guide to critical and creative thought (10th ed.). New York, NY: Pearson Longman.