Describe the difference between classical conditioning and instrumental conditioning. Your explanation should include how classical conditioning works and you should use the following in your description: US, UR, CS, CR. Likewise, explain the process of instrumental conditioning and explain what is meant by reinforcement and punishment. Good answers will include concrete personal examples. Absence of examples will result in grade penalties.
Classical conditioning occurs when you learn to compare two different stimuli, and no behavior is involved. The first stimulus you will encounter is the unconditioned stimulus. An unconditioned stimulus produces a response without any ...view middle of the document...
The heart rate is an unconditioned response following
a kiss, but now it also becomes a conditioned response when it follows your favorite song. It is a
conditioned response following the song because the song would not produce the elevated heart
rate if it were not associated with the act of kissing.
Operant conditioning, which is also called Instrumental conditioning, involves changing
voluntary behaviors. Either reinforcement or punishment follows a behavior response. Reinforcement following a behavior will cause the action to increase, but if a behavior is followed by punishment the behavior will decrease. Letâ€™s go back to the example of the kiss. What would happen if the person put their arms around you and kissed you back enthusiastically? This would be an example of reinforcement and would probably increase the likelihood that you would seek another kiss from the person.
There are two types of reinforcement. Positive reinforcement refers to the addition of something positive. Examples would be offering praise or treat when a desired behavior is displayed. Negative reinforcement occurs when something undesirable is removed when a behavior is demonstrated. Examples of this are taking aspirin to get rid of a headache or doing the dishes to avoid a fight with your roommate. Because of its name, negative reinforcement is often confused with punishment. The key difference is that negative reinforcement involves the removal of a negative consequence to increase the likelihood of a response. Reinforcement always increases the...