This website uses cookies to ensure you have the best experience. Learn more

Bacterial Pathogens In Food Waterborne Disease The Pediatric Bulletin Myrna R. Nieves, Md Faap

5534 words - 23 pages

Bacterial Pathogens in Food\Waterborne DiseaseThe Pediatric BulletinMyrna R. Nieves, MD FAAP (10/03/04)SHIGELLAShigella spp. were the second most common cause of bacterial foodborne illnesses reported by the CDC from 1983 to 1987 and the leading cause in bacterial waterborne outbreaks during 1986 to 1992 in the US. There are four species: Shigella dysenteriae, Shigella flexneri, Shigella boydii, and Shigella sonnei. Although this pathogen has been reported in contaminated food and water, the principal mode of transmission is person-to-person contact. There is no known animal reservoir. Shigella is capable of surviving in foods such as milk, whole eggs, ...view middle of the document...

Strict attention to hand-washing and personal hygiene is necessary to prevent spread of shigellosis. (10/03/04)Medicine (10/03/04)Background: Shigella is the most common cause of bacillary dysentery worldwide. Dysentery has been recognized since the time of Hippocrates.Pathophysiology: Shigella is spread through fecal-oral transmission. Humans are the only natural reservoir. No natural food products harbor endogenous Shigella, but a wide variety of foods may be contaminated.The infectivity dose (ID) is extremely low. As few as 10 Shigella dysenteriae bacilli can cause clinical disease, whereas 100-200 bacilli are needed for Shigella sonnei or Shigella flexneri infection.VirulenceVirulence in Shigella species involves both chromosomal- and plasmid-coded genes. Plasmid-coded genes are as follows:"h Siderophores control acquisition of iron from host cells from its protein-bound state.o Ability to acquire nutrients is an essential attribute of any successful organism. In the extraintestinal phase of infection by gram-negative bacteria, iron becomes one of the major factors limiting further growth. This limitation exists because most of the iron in human body is sequestered in hemoproteins (ie, hemoglobin, myoglobin) or iron-chelating proteins involved in iron transport (transferrin and lactoferrin).o Many bacteria are capable of secreting iron chelating compounds, "siderophores," which chelate iron from the intestinal fluids and then are taken up by bacteria to release iron inside the bacterium for its metabolic needs. These are under control of plasmids and are regulated tightly by genes such that, under low iron conditions, expression of the siderophore system is high."h Cytotoxins cause cell necrosis and can be enterotoxic and neurotoxic."h Regulatory genes control expression of virulence genes."h Many pathogenic features of Shigella infection are brought through production of potent cytotoxins known as Shiga toxin (Stx).o These are a family of cytotoxins that contain 2 major immunologically non-cross-reactive groups called Stx1 and Stx2. The homology sequences between Stx1 and Stx2 are 55% and 57% in subunits A and B, respectively. These toxins are lethal for animals; enterotoxic for ligated rabbit intestinal segments; and cytotoxic for vero, HeLa, and some selected endothelial cells (human renal vascular endothelial cells) manifesting as diarrhea, dysentery, and hemolytic-uremic syndrome.o Stx1 and Stx2 both are encoded by a bacteriophage inserted into the chromosome.o Shiga toxins have 2 subunits. Subunit A is a 32-kd polypeptide that, when digested by trypsin, generates A1 with a 28-kd fragment and another small fragment, A2, which is 4 kd. A1 fraction acts like N-glycosidase; it removes single adenine residue from 28S rRNA of ribosome and causes inhibition of protein synthesis. A2 fraction is a pentamer polypeptide of 7.7-kd...

Other Essays Like Bacterial Pathogens In FoodWaterborne Disease The Pediatric Bulletin Myrna R. Nieves, MD FAAP

In 1884, Hans Christian Gram Described a Method of Staining Bacterial Cells While Not Staining Surrounding Animal Tissues; However, He Thought the Staining Method He Developed Was Faulty Because Not...

2299 words - 10 pages individuals and populations. The main objectives of this new public health is that political and practical application of lessons learned from past successes and failures in disease control and the promotion of preventive measures to combat existing, evolving and re-emerging health threats and risks. So policymaking is a part of an ongoing process that does not have to have a clear beginning or end , the decisions about who will benefit

What Disease or Diseases Is Most Prominent in Your Part of the World and What Do You Think Should Be Done to Eradicate It

692 words - 3 pages In today’s highly hectic and very fast moving life, diseases of all types are erupting at an alarming speed. Among these, cardio vascular diseases, diabetes, hypertensions and obesity, emerge as a very prominent disease. Along with the rest of the world, Mauritius too has been affected by this emergence. The situation, however, is quite shocking in Mauritius and we are actually experiencing a rapid health transition, with large rising burdens of

5. Consider the E-R Diagram in Figure 7-20. Based on This E-R Diagram, Answer the Following Questions: • A. How Many Employees Can Work on a Project? • B. What Is the Degree of the Used on...

963 words - 4 pages Chapter 5 Review Questions 1. Describe systems analysis and the major activities that occur during this phase of the systems development life cycle. During systems analysis, you determine how the current information system functions and assess what users would like to see in a new system. Requirements determination, requirements structuring, and alternative generation and selection are the three primary systems analysis activities. 2

What Are Communicable Diseases?

1743 words - 7 pages that is transmitted by the contact of person to person or animal to person. Communicable disease are spread by contact with an infected person or object ,oral transmission, pathogens in the air, when many people with a communicable disease are among the same area, bites from insects and not in the case of children, sexual intercourse. Pathogens that can cause communicable diseases are viruses, bacteria, fungi, Protozoa, multicellular parasites, and

Practical Applications Of Evolutionary Biology

1818 words - 8 pages offers alternative solutions to problems in medicine and agriculture while providing insight and answers on how to deal with the problem of antibiotic exploitation occurring within these fields. Studying medical problems in an evolutionary context has been coined "Darwinian medicine." This way of studying medicine asks why our bodies are designed how they are and how this makes people susceptible to different problems that arise. Disease-causing

Why We Should Be More Cautious When Handling Money

1296 words - 6 pages intestinal disease could be quite high. Old Nigerian currency was found to be so contaminated it was considered a health risk for treasury workers due to impairment of lung function so they were withdrawn from circulation. Turkish and Burmese notes have more potential pathogens, including S. aureus, E. coli, P. aeruginosa, and Shigella flexneri. Viruses were not tested on money, but the potential for transmission on money is obviously possible. In the

Waterborne Illness

1427 words - 6 pages aches for Schistosomiasis. Dracunculiasis symptoms include diarrhea, asthmatic conditions, nausea, and rashes. Perhaps the most popular waterborne illnesses are the bacterial ones. Such include diseases such as cholera, typhoid and dysentery. The bacterium Vibrio Cholerae causes cholera which is among the fastest killing illness known to man (Smith, 2000). The disease in severe cases causes hypovolemic shock which causes death within a day

Reflective Practice

605 words - 3 pages Health Agency of Canada and the World Health Organization to greatly influence collective and personal well-being. The World Health Organization's Social Determinants Council also recognizes Social determinants of health in poverty. When the cause of a disease is poorly understood, societies tend to mythologize the disease or use it as a metaphor or symbol of whatever that culture considers to be evil. For example, until the bacterial cause of tuberculosis was discovered in 1882, experts variously ascribed the disease to heredity, a sedentary lifestyle, depressed mood, and overindulgence in sex, rich food, or alcohol—all the social ills of the time.[12]

Bio 2 18.1 Worksheet

568 words - 3 pages found in or on our bodies on a semi-permanent basis without causing disease 17. How are bacteria used in food production and antibiotics? They are used in things like meats and cheeses. 18. Bacteria that cause disease are called pathogens. List some bacterial diseases. TB - tuberculosis Tents Anthrax botuchulism strep throat Pathogens are bad bacteria. Jack in the box burgers.

Global U.S Bacterial Conjunctivitis Drugs Market - Size, Share, Analysis, Trends to 2024

3462 words - 14 pages exact estimate of epidemiology of this disease has not been studied or established in many countries including the developed markets such as the U.S.Antibiotics in the form of ointment or eye drops are prescribed by ophthalmologists and optometrists for treating bacterial conjunctivitis.Increasing the incidence of bacterial conjunctivitis is the major driver of the bacterial conjunctivitis drugs market in the U.S. The U.S. bacterial

Cost Paper 12

1994 words - 8 pages Islami Bank Bangladesh Limited Human Resources Division Head Office, Dhaka. Recruitment of Assistant Officer Grade-III '2012 of the Bank. Merit wise qualified candidates both in Written Examination and Vive Voce Merit 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 Roll No. 44455 44245 15133 12138 13806 30179 15128 13123 56158 30216 14747 15142 15392 30438 31799 30538

Related Papers

Disease In The News Chlamydia Essay

777 words - 4 pages Disease in the news- Chlamydia Mary Beth Anderson HCS/245 November 3, 2010 Jennifer Goodrich Disease in the news- Chlamydia Chlamydia, a sexually transmitted disease caused by the bacterium Chlamydia trachometis, is the most reported sexually transmitted disease in the United States. Left untreated Chlamydia damages reproductive organs causing irreversible complications such as infertility. In the reviewed article, the author focuses

European Disease In The New World

673 words - 3 pages European Disease in the New World Humans possess an innate curiosity that drives us to explore the unknown. Documentation of exploration by sea goes as far back as 3200 B.C., when Pharaoh Snefru brought 40 ships from Byblus to Phoenicia, followed by the first recorded expedition of exploration from Egypt in 2750 B.C, ( Events such as these would eventually give way to a period of vigorous

Disease In The News: Swine Lu

1203 words - 5 pages Disease in the News: Swine Flu Debra Wilson HCS245 January 13, 2014 Windy Tanner Disease in the News: Swine Flu In November, 2013 an article appeared in PLOS Medicine, which is a weekly peer-reviewed medical journal that covers the whole spectrum of medical sciences. PLOS stands for Public Library of Science. This article has to do with swine flu deaths from the 2009 global outbreak and a new study by researchers in 26 different

The Spread Of Disease In The New World

1846 words - 8 pages The Spread of Disease In the New World The extraordinary good health of the natives prior to the coming of the Europeans would become a key ingredient in their disastrous undoing. The greatest cause of disease in America was epidemic diseases imported from Europe. Epidemic diseases killed with added virulence in the " virgin soil" populations of the Americas. The great plague that arose in the Old World never emerged on their own among the