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Bacterial Pathogens In Food Waterborne Disease The Pediatric Bulletin Myrna R. Nieves, Md Faap

5534 words - 23 pages

Bacterial Pathogens in Food\Waterborne DiseaseThe Pediatric BulletinMyrna R. Nieves, MD FAAPhttp://home.coqui.net/myrna/food.htm (10/03/04)SHIGELLAShigella spp. were the second most common cause of bacterial foodborne illnesses reported by the CDC from 1983 to 1987 and the leading cause in bacterial waterborne outbreaks during 1986 to 1992 in the US. There are four species: Shigella dysenteriae, Shigella flexneri, Shigella boydii, and Shigella sonnei. Although this pathogen has been reported in contaminated food and water, the principal mode of transmission is person-to-person contact. There is no known animal reservoir. Shigella is capable of surviving in foods such as milk, whole eggs, ...view middle of the document...

Strict attention to hand-washing and personal hygiene is necessary to prevent spread of shigellosis.http://www.sciencenet.com.au/shigella.htm#biochemistry (10/03/04)Medicinehttp://www.emedicine.com/ped/byname/shigella-infection.htm (10/03/04)Background: Shigella is the most common cause of bacillary dysentery worldwide. Dysentery has been recognized since the time of Hippocrates.Pathophysiology: Shigella is spread through fecal-oral transmission. Humans are the only natural reservoir. No natural food products harbor endogenous Shigella, but a wide variety of foods may be contaminated.The infectivity dose (ID) is extremely low. As few as 10 Shigella dysenteriae bacilli can cause clinical disease, whereas 100-200 bacilli are needed for Shigella sonnei or Shigella flexneri infection.VirulenceVirulence in Shigella species involves both chromosomal- and plasmid-coded genes. Plasmid-coded genes are as follows:"h Siderophores control acquisition of iron from host cells from its protein-bound state.o Ability to acquire nutrients is an essential attribute of any successful organism. In the extraintestinal phase of infection by gram-negative bacteria, iron becomes one of the major factors limiting further growth. This limitation exists because most of the iron in human body is sequestered in hemoproteins (ie, hemoglobin, myoglobin) or iron-chelating proteins involved in iron transport (transferrin and lactoferrin).o Many bacteria are capable of secreting iron chelating compounds, "siderophores," which chelate iron from the intestinal fluids and then are taken up by bacteria to release iron inside the bacterium for its metabolic needs. These are under control of plasmids and are regulated tightly by genes such that, under low iron conditions, expression of the siderophore system is high."h Cytotoxins cause cell necrosis and can be enterotoxic and neurotoxic."h Regulatory genes control expression of virulence genes."h Many pathogenic features of Shigella infection are brought through production of potent cytotoxins known as Shiga toxin (Stx).o These are a family of cytotoxins that contain 2 major immunologically non-cross-reactive groups called Stx1 and Stx2. The homology sequences between Stx1 and Stx2 are 55% and 57% in subunits A and B, respectively. These toxins are lethal for animals; enterotoxic for ligated rabbit intestinal segments; and cytotoxic for vero, HeLa, and some selected endothelial cells (human renal vascular endothelial cells) manifesting as diarrhea, dysentery, and hemolytic-uremic syndrome.o Stx1 and Stx2 both are encoded by a bacteriophage inserted into the chromosome.o Shiga toxins have 2 subunits. Subunit A is a 32-kd polypeptide that, when digested by trypsin, generates A1 with a 28-kd fragment and another small fragment, A2, which is 4 kd. A1 fraction acts like N-glycosidase; it removes single adenine residue from 28S rRNA of ribosome and causes inhibition of protein synthesis. A2 fraction is a pentamer polypeptide of 7.7-kd...

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