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Bad Thing Essay

986 words - 4 pages

Dr. Nurzarina Abdul Rahman
Anatomy Unit
Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences

Learning outcomes
At the end of the lecture, the student should be
able to:
•  Define the axial and appendicular skeleton and
their functions.
•  Define the classification of bone.
•  Define bone markings and formations.
•  Briefly describe the bone development
(intramembranous and endochondral
•  Describe the vasculature and innervation of

Bone and its function

A living organ capable of changing its
structure as the result of stresses, which it is
Consists of cells, fibers and matrix
Hard because of calcification of matrix

There are ...view middle of the document...

  Compact bone
2.  Spongy bone

(according to
1.  Long bone
2.  Short bone
3.  Flat bone
4.  Irregular bone
5.  Sesamoid bone

Histological Classification
Compact bone
A solid type present at the
outer surface of the shaft of
long bone
Spongy bone
Contain pores and is friable
(not solid) due to bony
Contains red and yellow
marrow between the pores

Anatomical classification
Long bone
Length is greater than
Consists of two ends and
shaft, with medullary
cavity and periosteum
Found in limbs
Humerus, ulna,
Femur, tibia, fibula,

Anatomical classification
Carpals of hand

Short bone
Cuboidal in shape
Spongy bone surrounded
by thin layer of compact
Covered with periosteum
Present in parts of body
that needs strong
movement and have
limited range of

Anatomical classification
Flat bone
Thin inner and outer
layers of compact
bone with spongy bone
in between

Found in vault of skull
Protect and covers
important organs or
provide wide surface
for muscle attachment

Anatomical classification
Irregular bone
Bone with no specific
Bones of skull,
vertebrae, pelvic

Anatomical classification
Sesamoid bone

Patella at knee

Small nodules of bone
found inside the tendon
of the muscle
Function : reduce
friction on the tendon
and alter direction of
pull of a tendon

Bone markings and formation

•  Surfaces of bones show various markings or
•  Where bands of fascia, ligaments, tendons or
aponeuroses are attached to bone
•  Not present at birth
•  Appear at puberty and more obvious during
adult life
•  Important features that allow the
identification of the bone and bone function
•  May indicate age and gender of individual

Bone development

Ossification of the bone
The process of transformation of the
mesodermal embryonic tissue into bone
Bone develops in two ways by replacing either
mesenchyme or cartilage
Two types of ossification :...

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