adesh Our modern day Bangladesh is the successor of a four thousand year old civilization. Bangladesh is the successor of ancient "Banga", "Bangala" or "Bengal". Bangladesh literally means "the land of Banga". To discuss "the emergence of modern day Bangladesh, as an independent nation", we have to take under consideration, the different regimes that have shaped the face of modern day Bangladesh. Below we have discussed some important regimes that have ruled over this land at different stages of history:
Bengal under the Mughal rule
After the fall of the Karrani power in 1576, Bengal fell under the Mughal rule. But the establishment of effective rule took some time.
* On 19th ...view middle of the document...
* In 1598, Mansingh took temporary retirement, and his eldest son Jagatsingh took over. When he died, the younger Mahasingh took over. Because of revolts, Mansingh had to return to Bengal and defeat them in February, 1601; though revolts continued till next year. He also defeated the Mags of Arakan.
* Muhammad Jahangir (1605–1627) assumed the power of the Mughal Empire next and he replaced Mansingh with Qutb-ud-din Khan Koka (1605–1607). Qutb-ud-din Khan Koka and Sher Afghan Istalaju, a Turk Jaigirdar in Bengal, faced some nuisance from each other and both died in 1607. Sher Afghan's wife finally married Jahangir and was called Nur Jahan.
* The next subedar was Quli Khan (1607–1608) and when he died, Islam Khan (June 1608–died August 1613). Even at this time large parts of Bengal, under the zamindars known as "Baro Bhuyans". Islam Khan, with his gunpowder, horses, and navy, overcame all these zamindars and also defeated Shatrudaman of Kachhar. In 1612, he moved the capital to Dhaka and called it Jahangirnagar. He then captured Kamrup which was then under Pariksit Narayan, an offshoot of the dynasty ruling Coochbehar which also came under Mughal rule. This was the beginning of true Mughal rule in Bengal, a fundamental change in the economic, religious, social, and political structure of Bengal: it was now one of twelve imperial provinces. Sufis brought a pan-Indian religious outlook to the religion of the masses around the same time.
* The next subedar was Islam Khan's brother Qasim Khan (1614–17). He again saw revolts from different parts.
* The next subedar Ibrahim Khan Fatehjang (1617–24) reconquered parts of Bengal, but he was defeated by Prince khurram (Shahabu-ud-din, later Shah Jahan), who had revolted against his father Jahangir.
* In April 1624, Khurram started ruling independently over Bengal and Orissa and soon over Bihar and Oudh as well. He was defeated in October 1624, but when Jahangir died in 1627, after a confused period under Dawar Bakhsh (1627–28), he started ruling over the Mughal empire as Shahabu-ud-Din Shah Jahan Khusraw (1628–deposed in 1657). He defeated the Portuguese and recovered Hughli in 1632, and fought with Ahom. His son, Murad Baksh (1657) was defeated by subedar Shuja. Shuja was defeated by another of Shah Jahan's sons, Dara, who in turn was defeated by Mohi-ud-Din Awrangzeb Alamgir (1658–1707). Shuja fled to Arakan and was assasinated.
* Mir Jumla (June 1660–died March 1663) was the next subedar of Bengal. During his time, Coochbehar occupied Kamrup, and Ahom, Gauhati. Then Ahom took over Kamrup. Mir Jumla took over both, but both became independent when he died.
* The next subedar Shaesta Khan (March 1664–June 1688) was known for his economic oppression, but popularity amongst common man, in Bengal. He reconquered Coochbehar, defeated the Arakanese and Portuguese pirates and conquered Chittagong.
* After this, Khan-i-Jahan Bahadur was subedar for a year, followed by...