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Behavior Analysis

5656 words - 23 pages

Schedules of Reinforcement
Continuous- reinforcement is the exception rather than the rule; we more frequently see intermittent reinforcement of behavior.
Continuous: every response is reinforced
Intermittent: only some instances reinforced
*
Schedules of reinforcement:
Primarily concerned with intermittent relations (between behavior and its consequences)
Reinforcement schedules-rules for arranging consequences (or describe how consequences are arranged)
Defined by contingencies:
Different schedules=different conditions under which responses produce reinforcement.
Importance of schedules lies mainly in their ability to produce orderly and predictable patterns of behavior.
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g. on average schedule requires thirty lever presses for every reinforcer.
VR 30

FI- Fixed Interval Schedule
Generates ‘scallop pattern”
Initial pause followed by increase in rate as interval times out (positive acceleration)
PRP increase with interval duration.
Denotation
Fixed interval = FI
Period of time that must elapse before response produces reinforcer follows.
FI-30 sec or FI 30”
Example, looking at a clock as you get out of class.

VR (interval) – Variable Interval Schedule
Generates steady constant response rate (lower than VR)
Useful in generating a behavioral baseline for studying other variables.
Like VR, little or no PRP
*Example, waiting for a big wave.
Denotation
VI
Average period of time that must elapse before response produces reinforcer follows
On average schedule requires thirty seconds to pass before a lever press will produce a reinforcer
VI 30 sec or VI 30”

In General…
Response rate is higher in ratio schedules compared to interval schedules
Longer Inner Response Time (time between responses) reinforced in interval schedules.
Ratio schedules: Reinforcer delivery rate Is directly proportional to response rate.
Faster responding = more reinforcers
Not the case in interval schedules: Reinforcer delivery rate is relatively independent of response rate
Faster responding may only slightly increase reinforcer rate if at all.
Pausing- occurs on fixed schedules (scalloping, decrease after a reward is delivered), but not on variables schedules.
Longer interreinforcement intervals (IRI) = Longer pauses
FI: longer pause may be matter of “timing” the interval
FR: upcoming ration seems to exert most control
Pre-ratio pause?
Ratio strain- Longer pauses with higher ration may break down performance.

Interval schedules:
They have a regenerative nature.

Differential reinforcement of Low Rates (DRL)
Low rate= long interresponse time (IRT)
Response is reinforced if IRT > some amount of time
Used to generate behavior that is acceptable at low rates.
“” “” of High Rates (DRH)
High rate= short interresponse time (IRT)
Response is reinforced if IRT, some amount of time.

“” “” of Zero Rate/ Other behavior (DRO)
Reinforcer delivered if no response emitted in some amount of time
Alternative to extinction (reinforcer delivered)

“” “” of Alternative Behavior (DRA)
Reinforcer delivered for some particular behavior and withheld from undesired behavior.

Variables that Influence Choice
Reinforcement Rate
The more reinforcers the better.
Reinforcement Delay:
The quicker the reinforcement the better.
Magnitude
The bigger the reinforcer the better.
But they also compete (Delay vs. Amount)
Smaller sooner vs. larger later
E.g. small reinforcer now vs big reinforcer later
Classic self control problem.
Self-Control:
Common terms: “impulsive” vs. “has self control”
Represents choice between small payoff now and a...

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