Ivan Pavlov (1849-1936)
Pavlov has been on the side because he did what he did when no one was paying attention, and he did it in Russia and communication wasn’t as good as now, no one knew that there was a guy in Russia setting the stage for classical conditioning. You read a few stories in the book and he’s a brilliant and bizarre kid. When Darwin published the origin of species when he was 10 and he loved Darwin and he decided to study medicine. He went to st. pittsuburg and studied physiology. Read some of the stories from the book, he was workaholic. He hated psychology, once he got going on the condition reflex, he discovered that he has intersection with psychology, he hated it and ...view middle of the document...
Tone then food is the best to work, or together, but if you put them the other way around there will be no conditioning.
2) Extinction: what are the condition in which a CS is extinguished. If you graph the acquisition process. If you graph the strength of the CR (amount of saliva) against Time, we get a simple acquisition curve. When the CS presented without the food, you stop the saliva, then extinction will lead to “unlearn” the first condition. Pavlov figured that it is not the case, what led him to 3
3) Spontaneous recovery: is a phenomenon That he noted very early, if you have an animal on extinction trial you slowly decrease the condition reflex. But on only one trial midway you show the full capacity of the same reflex (full saliva) back.
4) Generalization: here we’re saying that the stimulus has certain loudness (the tone has 20db) you get conditioned to that particular tone, and the full strength happens at 20db. If we ring 10db or 40 db, what he found when measured the amount of saliva, he found a general concentration gradient, the further the stimulus was away from the original stimulus, the less response you get (10db will make them salivate less but 5db will make them salivate even less)
5) Discrimination (differentiation) the opposite of generalization: here the set up s different: you can UCS paired with CS1 and produced CR, then you pair nothing with CS2 and you also get no CR, when you have a tone of 20db, when you have 40db no food. So the dog learns that 20db is food 40db is no food. When we graph this we notice that we have a very steep curve, very narrow the discrimination gradient.
It took him 20 years to write these and almost no one ever heard of him. His first book in 1927 is the first book to finally get to be known. He hit the US in a book in English, there was so much in it and it was so detailed a that they got shocked and they really didn’t know about any of that and he was the new paradigm into psychology.
What’s wrong with all this: several people started working on this and showed that Pavlov doesn’t really work: Robert Rescorla, the Rescorla-Wagner: one of the most famous reductions in psychology, reduces the Pavlov theory into the Reward-Prediction Error: what conditions is essentially whether the condition stimulus has a predictive value, whether a neutral stimulus predicts the condition stimulus. Whenever the reward you get matches the prediction, you learn nothing, when the reward prediction error is positive you learn everything, when the reward prediction error is negative you get discrimination. Pavlov is not still standing up to that day and other theories have been more successful and more fascinating then ever. It shifts the entire focus of why conditioning happens in the first place, it matches the prediction of you getting a reward to the actual reward.
John B. Watson (1878-1958) the first and the founding father of behaviorism. Popularized it more than anyone. A redneck and went to...