Hannah Mae Laguros
Definition: Acute peripheral CN VII (facial nerve) palsy of unknown cause
Aka: prosoplegia, refrigeration palsy, ipsilat. Facial paralysis
1) Motor: to facial muscles, stapedius, post. digastric, stylohyoid
2) Parasympathetic: to lacrimal, submandibular, sublingual salivary glands
3) Sensory: taste on anterior 2/3 of tongue
* Annual Incidence 10-40/100,000
* Lifetime incidence 1:60
* Widely accepted cause is HSV-1, however not proven
* HSV mediates inflammatory/immune response which leads to myelin sheath degeneration, & edema which causes compression and further ...view middle of the document...
The highest prevalence is among people aged 30-50 years, with a male to
female ratio of 2:1.
In about 95% of all disc herniation cases, the L4-L5 or L5-S1 disc levels are involved.
Causes of lumbar disc herniation
1. Trauma or injury to the disc
2. Disc degeneration
3. Congenital predisposition
Types of disc herniation
Clinical manifestations of disc herniation
If the herniated disc is:
* Not pressing on a nerve, you may have an ache in the low back or no symptoms at all.
* Pressing on a nerve, you may have pain, numbness, or weakness in the area of your body to which the nerve travels.
Leg pain caused by a herniated disc
* May be aggravated by sitting, prolonged standing, and bending or twisting movements.
* May be relieved by walking, lying down, and other positions that relax the spine and decrease pressure on the damaged disc.
MRI is the test of choice for evaluation of disc disease. Its multiplanar...