This website uses cookies to ensure you have the best experience. Learn more

Biochemistry Essay

1257 words - 6 pages

Cellular Respiration

Cell respiration is a series of oxidative reactions by which cells gradually release energy from glucose and transfer it to molecules of ATP (adenosine triphosphate).
Energy stored in ATP is immediately available for cellular activities such as contracting muscles, passing an impulse along a nerve, or pumping ions by active transport.
The equation for the complete aerobic respiration of one molecule of glucose:
C6H12O6 + 6O2 → 6CO2 + 6H2O + energy
Glucose combines with oxygen to produce energy (ATP) plus the waste products (carbon dioxide and water).

ATP- adenosine triphosphate
ATP is the special high-energy molecule that stores energy for immediate use in ...view middle of the document...

Anaerobic respiration originated billions of years ago when there was no free oxygen in Earth’s atmosphere. Today it is the sole means by which anaerobic bacteria such as Clostridium botulinum (the bacteria that causes a form of food poisoning, botulism) release energy from food.

Alcohol fermentation-
Alcohol fermentation is the process by which certain cells convert pyruvic acid or pyruvate from glycolysis into ethyl alcohol and carbon dioxide in the absence of oxygen. The bread-baking industry depends on the ability of yeast to carry out fermentation and produce the carbon dioxide that causes bread to rise. Also, the beer, wine, and liquor industries depend on yeast to ferment sugar into ethyl alcohol.

Lactid Acid fermentation-
Lactid acid fermentation occurs during strenuous exercise when the body cannot keep up with the increased demand for oxygen by skeletal muscles. Pyruvic acid produced by glycolysis converts to lactic acid and builds up in muscles, causing fatigue and burning. The expression, “No pain, no gain” refers to the pain caused by lactic acid buildup in skeletal muscles. When an increase in blood flow restores proper oxygen levels, the muscle tissue reverts to the more efficient aerobic respiration and lactic acid is removed from the muscles. Lactic acid is carried to the liver, where it is converted back to pyruvic acid.

Aerobic respiration- (when oxygen is present)
Aerobic respiration consists of three processes: glycolysis, the Krebs cycle, and the electron transport chain.

Glycolysis is the anaerobic phase of aerobic respiration. One molecule of glucose breaks apart into two molecules of pyruvate. Pyruvate or pyruvic acid, is essentially one-half of a glucose molecule and is the raw material for the next step in respiration (the Krebs cycle).
Glycolysis occurs in the cytoplasm.
Glycolysis is a complex, multi-step process, each step of which is controlled by a different enzyme.
Two molecules of ATP supply the energy of activation (the energy needed to begin the reaction).
Glycolysis releases 4 ATP molecules, resulting in a net gain of 2 ATP.
1 Glucose + 2 ATP → 2 pyruvate + 4 ATP + 2 NADH (net gain 2 ATP).

Glycolysis produces pyruvic acid and a small amount of ATP.

The Krebs Cycle- (citric acid cycle)
The Krebs cycle, also known as the citric acid cycle, is the first stage of the aerobic phase of cellular respiration.
Pyruvic acid (from glycolysis) combines with coenzyme A (a vitamin A derivative) to form Acetyl-CoA, which enters the Krebs cycle.
Pyruvic acid + coenzyme A → Acetyl-CoA.
This (Krebs cycle) occurs in the matrix of the mitochondria.
Each turn of the Krebs cycle produces 1 molecule of both ATP and FADH2 plus 3 molecules of NADH.
The by-product is CO2, which is exhaled.
The Krebs cycle produces a small amount of ATP, carbon dioxide and NADH and FADH2.

NADH and FADH2 molecules are an important part of cell respiration.
NADH and FADH2 are...

Other Essays Like Biochemistry

Bio 101 What Is Life Essay

786 words - 4 pages . Biology and chemistry are interrelated, without understanding chemical component of a living organism, there will be difficulties in understanding certain behaviors of the organism. Biochemistry is the study of the chemical process in living organisms and this helps us understand the disease processes, pave way for disease prevention and

Ms.Carlson Essay

663 words - 3 pages presumably the simplest of protein molecules, whereas others are 10 to 100 times larger.” Therefore, this cite gave me a little more understanding about protein structure, and function. Reference Laron, Z. (2008). Insulin-a growth hormone. Archives Of Physiology & Biochemistry, 114(1), 11-16.doi:10.1080/13813450801928356 Jabr. F. (2013). THE THREE-DIMENSIONAL STRUCTURE OF A PROTEIN MOLECULE. Scientific American, 309(1), 73-74

Normative Ethics

520 words - 3 pages non-programmable calculator. b. No cell-phone allowed. c. Subject of an open-book examination will be discussed among students, two weeks prior to the examination date. Rules and regulations This course follows rules and regulations of University of Windsor and Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry. These rules and policies of can be viewed at 1. Acceptable Use Computing Policy visit 2

Book Report on Double Helix

656 words - 3 pages like how Watson incorporates his flaws and mistakes and how open he is about it letting reader know. Plus, since we recently studied biochemistry I understand the terminology when it describes alpha-helix, phosphate groups, nitrogenous bases and ect. (:

Lamella Clarifiers Market Growth, Trends and Value Chain 2016-2026 by Fmi

675 words - 3 pages TOC@ Electronics (Semiconductor industry) Biochemistry Others By Geography, global Lamella Clarifiers market can be segmented into:- North America Latin America Eastern Europe Western Europe Asia Pacific Excluding Japan (APEJ) Japan Middle East and Africa (MEA) Browse Full Report@ Lamella Clarifiers Market


546 words - 3 pages . Now I am a biochemistry major and absolutely cannot wait to graduate and apply to medical school on my way to becoming a general surgeon. A few of the differences between high school and college that I have noticed and appreciated greatly are, first, the independence a student gains after getting through the first week of classes. Next, I found that college requires far more focus than high school, which is fantastic as high school was never

Molecular Biology of Gene

1057 words - 5 pages Molecular Biology of Gene BT251: 1st term Lecture 6 1 Reference books 1. Biochemistry by J.M Berg, J.L. Tymoczko and L. Stryer; 6th edition, W.H. Freeman publisher 2. Molecular biology of the cell by Bruce Alberts and others, 5th edition, Garland Science publisher 3. Lehninger Principles of Biochemistry, 5th Edition, W.H. Freeman publisher Composition of a gene What is nucleic acid? • Nucleic acids like DNA

Slos Syndrome

1205 words - 5 pages Medicine, 13(24). Retrieved from Kelley, R. I., & Hennekam, R. C. M. (2000). The smith-lemli-opitz syndrome. Journal of Medical Genetics, 37(5), 321-321. Retrieved from 205476592?accountid=35997 Liscum, L. (2002). Cholesterol biosynthesis. Biochemistry of lipids, lipoprotein, and membrane (4th Ed), Elsevier Science B. V. Ch 15, 409-431. Retrieved from

The History Of Chemistry

1581 words - 7 pages some isomers was discovered by Louis Pasteur, whose work innovated biochemistry. Physical chemistry became important during the last part of the nineteenth century. William Oswald and Jacobus Van't Hoff did work on chemical equilibriums while Svante August formulated a theory of ionization. Accurate atomic weights were determined by Theodore Richards and helium and other inert gasses were discovered by Rayleigh and Ramsay. After 1900

Outline & Evaluate the Biological Explanation of Phobic Disorders:

1578 words - 7 pages Outline & evaluate the biological explanation of phobic disorders: The biological explanation for the acquisition of phobic disorders establishes that phobias are caused by genetics, innate influences and the principles of biochemistry. This theory recognises that an oversensitive fear response may be inherited, causing abnormal levels of anxiety. This is illustrated in the basis of inheritance, particularly the adrenergic theory that

Weakness In Sigmound Freud’S Theories

878 words - 4 pages approach on behaviour, are influences such as biochemistry and genetics. . Another weakness in Freud’s theories was on his biased, sexist male view on female inferiority such as his idea of “penis envy”. Although Carl Jung developed the Electra complex, expressing girls do have sexual desires for their fathers. Resenting their mothers in the process. Freud became outraged by this concept, claiming that it was misleading to imply that both genders experiences are similar. A concrete empirical base for the Oedipus has yet to be discovered.

Related Papers

Biochemistry Essay

669 words - 3 pages DNA Replication Jennifer Wilson Biochemistry GRT1 Margie Hayes January 18,2015 Deoxyribonucleic Acid (DNA) DNA is made of chemical building blocks called nucleotides. These building blocks (nucleotides) are made of phosphate, sugar and one of four types of nitrogen bases. The four types of nitrogen bases found in nucleotides are: adenine, thymine, guanine and cytosine. These nucleotides are either purine or pyrimidine based, called

Biochemistry C624 Essay

1128 words - 5 pages Task 4 Western Governors University Biochemistry C624 November 9, 2015 A1. Describe two important features that make all enzymes catalysts. An enzyme is a protein that serves as catalysts of biological reactions converting a substrate into a product. The catalyst can increase the rate of the reaction. A catalyst does not change, or get consumed, during the reaction. A2. Create an original diagram, or series of diagrams with clear

Grt Task 2: Biochemistry Essay

970 words - 4 pages GRT task 2: Biochemistry (V. Undergrad-0814) Proteins are made up of smaller units called amino acids. Hundreds or thousands of amino acids in long chains form a protein molecule. There are 20 different types of amino acids that combine to make a protein. Amino acids are classified into three groups: essential amino acids, non-essential amino acids, and conditional amino acids. Essential amino acids cannot be made by the body and must

Task 5 Biochemistry Essay

944 words - 4 pages 1                        Task 5 Biochemistry   June 7, 2015                                  2  Energy can be stored as fat in the liver or in adipose tissue. We also get fatty acids from our  diets. Fat is stored in the form of a Triglyceride (TG) or as a Triacylglycerol (TAG) which is  made up of a glycerol molecule, a carboxyl group and three fatty chains attached together.  Through a process called