Deoxyribonucleic Acid (DNA)
DNA is made of chemical building blocks called nucleotides. These building blocks (nucleotides) are made of phosphate, sugar and one of four types of nitrogen bases. The four types of nitrogen bases found in nucleotides are: adenine, thymine, guanine and cytosine. These nucleotides are either purine or pyrimidine based, called nucleotide subunits. The purine base are adenine and guanine. The pyrimidine based are thymine and cytosine. The DNA strand is formed when the nucleotides are linked into chains, with the phosphate and sugar group alternating. As you can see in the ...view middle of the document...
The strand that is discontinuous, the lagging strand, grows away from the replication fork.
Transcription, Translation & Death Cap Mushroom
mRNA is necessary to directly synthesize or copy polypeptides, called transcription. During this process the DNA is coded into mRNA and the information is rewritten and translated into protein. The death cap mushroom is extremely toxic and can inhibit the enzyme vital for the synthesis of mRNA, which is the enzyme RNA Polymerase II. Without the production of mRNA, there will not be a template to produce new protein. This mRNA protein synthesis is vital to cell metabolism or the cell dies.
The enzymes DNA Polymerase (orange square) catalyze the synthesis of new complimentary strands. This process occurs at each replication fork and moves from 5’-3’. The DNA Polymerase travels along the strand and new DNA is produced.
DNA Polymerase I
Next in the replication process RNA Polymerase or primase and the primers are replaced by DNA Polymerase I. DNA Polymerase I moves in the 5’ to 3’ direction proofreading for mistakes as it goes. DNA Polymerase I fills in...