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Bond Notes Essay

1110 words - 5 pages

Ionic Bond* bond formed between oppositely charged ions because of electrostatic forces of attraction. example: sodium + chlorine ----> sodium chlorideIonic compound* a compound composed of ions.* Metal atoms lose electrons to form positive ions, called cations, which are smaller than the original atom.The loss of an energy level with electrons, plus the excess positive charge draws the remaining electrons toward the nucleus and causes the electron cloud to contract even more.* Nonmetal atoms gain electrons to form negative ions, called anions, which are larger than the original atom.The addition of an extra electron increases the electron-electron repulsion and causes the electron ...view middle of the document...

The halogens also exist as diatomic molecules. Fluorine, chlorine, bromine and iodine all have the same type of Lewis structure, with seven outer electrons (2 on the right side, 2 on the top, 2 on the left side, and 1 on the bottom, so two F atoms share their unpaired electrons with each other to form the single covalent bond, F:F or F-F, to get F2. The rest of the pairs of electrons around each halogen are called "unshared pairs". The number of paired and unpaired electrons around an atom play an important part in determining the shape of a molecule, which in turn contribute to chemical and physical properties of the molecule.Oxygen atoms, with six outer level electrons each ( 2 on the right side, 2 on the top, and 1 each on left side and bottom), share two pairs of electrons and thus have a double bond between them. This is shown by O::O or O=O for O2.Nitrogen atoms, with only five outer electrons has 2 on the right side, and 1 each on the top, left side and bottom. Two nitrogen atoms share three electrons each, to form three pairs between them. This bonding is written as :N:::N:, N=N for N2Things get a bit more complicated when atoms of different kinds of elements bond. One of the simplest bonds is between hydrogen and chlorine. The single unpaired electron on H pairs up with the unpaired electron on the chlorine and the result is H:Cl or H-Cl, or HCl.Writing/Drawing Lewis Structures for simple molecules.1. Count the number of valence electrons in each of the atoms in the molecule.2. Count the total number of electrons that are needed to give each atom in the molecule an octet in the valence level, or two electrons for hydrogen.3. Find the difference between the number of electrons available for sharing (#1) and the total number needed to complete the octet for each (#2). This gives the number of electrons that will be shared among the bonding atoms.4. ...

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