This website uses cookies to ensure you have the best experience. Learn more

Brain Development, Gender And Iq In Children: A Volumetric Imaging Study

1396 words - 6 pages


Brain development, gender and IQ in children: A volumetric imaging study

National University
Understanding Young Children: Cognition and the Growing Child
In partial fulfillment of ECE 652
Assignment 2.1
Dr. Brenda Sheppard-Johnson
April 2010

Brain development, gender and IQ in children: A volumetric imaging study

The quantitative study conducted by Reiss, Abrams, Singer, Ross, and Denckla, attempts to answer the question of how brain size, and more importantly cerebral capacity, differs between genders; what, if any, correlation exists between brain morphology; and ...view middle of the document...

All images were processed and then segmented grey, white, and CSF areas. (Reiss et al., 1996) Before measuring the grey and white compartments, composite images were created, and tissue and fluid in the brainstem and cerebellum were manually excluded. Histogram-based algorithms were used on each slice to determine the tissue classification. “CSF voxels comprising the lateral ventricles and subcortical grey voxels comprising the basal ganglia and thalamus were designated and segmented separately in each slice.” (Reiss et al., 1996, p. 1764) In each slice, the volume of the area of interest was calculated by multiplying the number of pixels in the area by the thickness of the slice. A sum of all the volumes found in a region resulted in the volume of the structure.
The presence of neuroanatomical differences in specific regions due to age or gender was identified by calculating the different volumes of the hemispheric and sub-hemispheric grey matter, cerebral white matter, tissue (grey + white) and CSF. To do so five planes were projected onto the image which divided the brain into sixteen sections. These sections corresponded to “prefrontal, posterior frontal, orbital-frontal, parietal, superior parietal-occipital, inferior parietal-occipital, anterior temporal, and mid/posterior temporal” (Reiss et al., 1996, p. 1764) on both the right and left sides.
Finally, the following measures were put in place to eliminate bias: the scans of those with and without genetic disorders were interspersed, all identifiable information was removed from the scans, and those researchers who were rating the morphologic change did not know to which group any subject belonged to.
Cerebral volume in children – gender effects
It was found that the absolute cerebral volume (grey + white + CSF) is approximately 10% larger in boys then girls. Grey and white matter individual volumes were found to be similar (11.4% and 10.0% respectively), and it was determined that it is the volume of the grey matter contributes the most to the overall volume. These gender differences for grey matter for both were found to be statistically significant with p value ≤ 0.0002. Cortical grey had a p value ≤ 0.0001, whereas white matter was only marginally significant with a p value ≤ 0.0052. (Reiss et al., 1996, p. 1766)
In contrast, the size of the subcortical nuclei’s were not significantly different between genders, however, girls do have a larger amount of extraventricular CSF. Analysis of the eight bilateral subhemishperic regions did not result in any significant gender effect. All in all, the tissue and fluid volumes in both boys and girls is quite similar.
Change in cerebral volume with age
“There was no observable change in total cerebral volume as a function of age in either males or females.” (Reiss et al., 1996, p. 1767) Taking gender out of the equation, age was found to predict significant differences in the volumes of...

Other Essays Like Brain Development, Gender and Iq in Children: a Volumetric Imaging Study

A Case Study of Children in a Year 3 Primary School Class

3825 words - 16 pages A Case Study of Children in a Year 3 Primary School Class and their Predilections for Social Interaction within School: are there Preferences for Interaction with Children with Typical Speech rather than Children with Speech and Language Impairments. Introduction Children learn through engaging in all forms of communication with both adults and peers, with language being a fundamental part of the learning process. However, for children

Development of Children and Violent Video Games

1228 words - 5 pages industry is a remunerative one, it can also have contrary effects on children and adolescents. Scientific studies, done by researchers and psychologist around the world, show that impetuous video games can be detrimental in both children and adolescents, transmogrify brain functions, causing overly belligerent behavior, feelings of assailing, demoniac, violence and childhood obesity. Youth education also suffers because video game addiction and lack of

Understanding Children and Young Persons Development

1010 words - 5 pages , write and draw. Their confidence will have grown in areas such as running hopping, kicking a ball and climbing larger equipment | As they grow in confidence they interact with others which will help to develop their communication and intelligence. The more interaction they get the more this develops. E.g. attending nursery and school - they learn to ask question and read. | During these years children develop further, their own identity and

Pd the Patterns of Success in Product Development a Case Study

2858 words - 12 pages getting R&D success. The paper is related a case study managed in the metal industry. The case study is written about product development projects including products of the metal industry companies A and B serving customers in the industry. There are some important characteristic of the business; * Big investments impress the market demand for paper grades. * To be the length of product life cycles which is supposed to be between ten

Describe And Critically Assess Research In To The Effects Of Deprivation On The Subsequent Development Of Children

2265 words - 10 pages fostered or adopted after the age of 3 and a half years. They remained developmentally behind the control group who were fostered at around 6 months. This study emphasises the importance of age, suggesting that the effects of deprivation might not be reversed after the age of 3 and a half. Spitz (1945) found that children in hospitals and orphanages physically and mentally deteriorated when deprived for a long time. However, whilst these studies

Communication and Proffesional Development with Children and Young People

4462 words - 18 pages good. The tone of your voice. Example with the tone of your voice if you need the attention of children you can lower your voice because if your shouting and raising your voice over the children’s voices they are not going to pay attention to what you’re having to say. The consequences of poor communication and not explaining properly would result in a lack of understanding. Children and adults would get frustrated as things would be done

Growth and Character Development in to Kill a Mockingbird

1066 words - 5 pages To Kill a Mockingbird Formal Essay “Lawyers, I suppose, were children once.” Harper Lee chose to echo these words of Charles Lamb in her bestselling novel, ‘To Kill a Mockingbird’. This statement is very applicable to this story, which is told from the perspective of 7-year-old Scout (Jean-Louise) Finch, whose father is a lawyer. An important lesson in the novel is growing in understanding. Scout, Jem and Atticus are just a few examples of

Tourettes in Children and Adults

694 words - 3 pages Tourettes Syndrome in Children Tourettes syndrome (TS) is a neurological disease which means it is in the brain. Although its specific cause is still under scientific investigation, it is believed that tourettes is caused by neurotransmitters in the brain which do not connect properly. It is a known fact this disease is genetic but it is usually not passed on by parents. It is also know that the disease can be influenced by

Explain the Sequence and Rate of Each Aspect of Development That Would Normally Be Expected in Children and Young People from Birth – 19 Years

857 words - 4 pages Explain the sequence and rate of each aspect of development that would normally be expected in children and young people from birth – 19 years Birth – 1 month: Sleeps 20 hours a day Crying – main form of communication – fosters early interaction. Begins to have distinct facial expressions. Moves around more. Focuses both eyes together. Can detect smells. Sensitive to touch. Uses reflexes. Focuses on source of sound. 2 – 3 months

The Study Of Child Development Through A Visual Arts Workshop

8245 words - 33 pages study does not consider change in personality development not directly shown in how the participants address art activities.DEFINITION OF TERMSArts and Crafts- products concentrated on decorative design and handicraftOrganization- an organized body of people with a particular purposeYouth- Group of children aged three to sixCHAPTER II: REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATUREBased on a survey conducted, majority of the children between the ages three and six, in

Raising Children in a Topic World

1756 words - 8 pages -lifetime disaster, experiencing all of these risks all at once. B. Risks jeopardize overall development, children are more sensitive to toxic influences, intelligence suffers and below average IQs in children. Children in Risk environments achieve less, suffer from low self esteem, higher levels of aggression. Rejection damages self-worth, becoming less social and more destructive themselves and others. Children will have a better chance for

Related Papers

Outline Two Factors That Contribute To The Development Of Gender Stereotypes And Gender Role Adoption In Children

2669 words - 11 pages boys and girls. These influence the development of identity and assumption of roles of children. Advertisements express gender categorisation. In a study of advertisements targeting children in the United States and Australia, there is a common trend towards gender stereotyping. The portrayal of boys or the message of advertisements for products intended for boys express aggressiveness, mental dominance, active lifestyle, and keenness in

Radiation Protection Among Patients And Staff In The Imaging Department


Values In Kancil Stories And The Development Of Children Character

1690 words - 7 pages A. Introduction One of the ways to tell and educate the children about moral values is by telling a story. At school, teachers usually tell the students some inspiring stories which usually are fiction, such as fables, legend and other folktales. One of the most famous stories told by teachers and parents is Kancil (Mousedeer) story. Kancil story is kind of fable as the characters in the story are animals. Fables, which frequently feature

The United Kingdom And India: A Study Of Gender And Economic/Regional Cleavages

2456 words - 10 pages The United Kingdom and India: A Study of Gender and Economic/Regional Cleavages Introduction The United Kingdom, a former world power and colonizing empire, and India, the second most populous country in the world and former colony of the United Kingdom, share a bond of democracy. The United Kingdom is a constitutional monarchy with a Parliament consisting of the House of Commons and the House of Lords. Similarly, India is a federal