1. The different levels of organization are listed as follows:
Cell- the structural and functional unit of all living things
Tissue – a group of cells with a common structure and function
Organ – composed of tissues functioning together for a specific task
Organ System – composed of several organs working together
Organism – an individual; complex individuals contain organ systems.
Population – organisms of the same species in a particular area.
2. 7 basic characteristics of life are as follows :
Are organized – we are all organized in different groups according to our working class states.
Acquire material and energy – we all learn to gather food and utilize energy to be ...view middle of the document...
Hypothesis – input from a various sources is used to formulate a testable statement. Experiment/Observation – the hypothesis is tested by experiment or further observations. Conclusion – the results are analyzed, and the hypothesis is supported or rejected. Scientific Theory – many experiments and observations support a theory.
6. The book points to an example involving possible treatments to an ulcer regarding tests subjects and results. As stated by Mader and Windelspecht, (2012), “When scientists do an experiment, they try to vary just the experimental variables, in this case, the medications being tested. A control group is not given the medications, but one or more test groups are given the medications.” (p. 11). If a set group of tested subjects were not affected and the other groups were then you would be able to determine what worked and what didn’t thus knowing an outcome by a controlled study.
7. According to Mader and Windelspecht, (2012), “Anecdotal data, which consist of testimonials by individuals rather than results from a controlled, clinical study, are never considered reliable data.”
8. According to Mader and Windelspect, (2012), “Therefore, the lower the p value, the greater the confidence the investigators and you can have in the results.” Regarding the study on the worksheet and reference to the book, a lower probability value shows better room for accuracy of being right. Study A is acceptable but Study B is definitely highly favored to be more in the realm in what you would like to achieve.
9. An element is the basic building block of matter, while a compound is the end state of what an element evolves into through the process of combining atoms and working its way up to a compound state by way of negatively charged electrons, positively charged protons and neutral neutrons.
10. As stated by Mader and Windelspecht, (2012), “Isotopes of the same type of atom have the same number of protons (thus, the same atomic number) but different number of neutrons. Therefore, their mass numbers are different. Basically the difference lies within the atoms and whether or not the atoms are the same or not due to its mass numbers which ultimately determine if it’s going to be the same or not.
11. The main difference between ionic and covalent bonding is basically that ionic bond involves equal electrons on the outer shell regarding their atoms, and, covalent bonds involves the sharing of electrons by atoms that are overlapping the outer shell rather than even around the outer shell.
12. As stated by Mader and Winderspecht, (2012), “The pH scale was devised to simplify discussion of the hydrogen ion concentration [H+] and consequently of the hydroxide ion concentration [OH-]. It eliminates the use of cumbersome numbers.” (p. 27). In more laymen terms according to Mader and Windelspecht, (2012), “In living things, the pH of body fluids needs to be maintained within a narrow range or else health...