Or line item budgeting
-Line by line list of expenitures to be aid by a given department or agency or office over a specfic year; quite rudimentary; bottom-up as opposed top-down
The Plus Side (+)
-Fundamentals of programs and polices will continue to exist
-Not difficult nor time-consuming
The Minus Side (-)
-Limited value as a planning tool
-Limited information to senior officials
* Efficiency evaluations are built into the process by determining a relationship between financial inputs and service outputs
-Connects money spent and services rendered
* The Plus Side(+)
-Permits efficiency evaluations
-High performers can be rewarded accordingly
* The Minus Side(-)
* Can be only applied to services that are easily quantifiable
-Not all public services are easily quantifiable
-Results in more frustration than ...view middle of the document...
Developing an information system for each program that
The Planning-Programming Budgeting System (PPBS)
PPBS in Theory
-Founded on the assumption that priorities and objectives could be programmed and that the quantitiative and qualitative worth of programs could be evaluated.
Setting Priorities within an Institution
Setting/ranking of government priorities is easier said than done.
Fixing the Healthcare System
Eliminating the poverty
Measuring and Analyzing Objectives
* Any program has many objectives, each neccesiating a different form of evaluation
Forecasting Political and Economic Conditions
* Economic slowdown and political conditions can change rapidly.
Concentrated Decision Making Power
-Shifted decision-making power into the hands of senior policy analysts and managers within departments and central agencies and out of the hands of middle managers
-The Privy Council Office, Treasury Board Secretariat and Finance came to play major roles
PEMS( The Expenditure Management System)
Was designed as a general system of financial management, linking together in a systematic method the demands of planning, programming, budgeting, and.
* Financial Mgmt
The Mechanics of the Systems
-Presents official with cyclical annual budgeting process
-Departmental business plans en vogue
When The Federal Government tables its budget they do it before the Fiscal year begins.
1. Inflate the budget( build in fat)
2. Spend now, Save later( new programs= future improvements)
3. Mobilize Interest Groups
4. Take Advantage of Crisis ( can become catalysts for new programs)
5. Attack Popular Programs ( one of the most desirable ones)
6. Make an End Run( treat it as a fait accompli) Sensitive thing to make an end run in budgeting. To go around the minister of finance is ridiculous. People dislike end runs.
1. Set the rules (establish systems that militate against end runs)
-Demand documentation (studies and analyses)
-Confer and investigate( see contrary opinions)
-Know thy opponent (recruit former departmental employees)
-Just say NO (nuff said!)