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Business Managerment Techniques Essay

1688 words - 7 pages

Comparing and Contrasting Leadership Models
Rebecca Boning
University of Phoenix

Comparing and Contrasting Leadership Models
The phenomenon of leadership has been studied extensively over many years by a diverse group of researcher for the purpose of understanding how and why some people have power and influence over others and how this impacts society and history. Additionally, understanding how leaders impact organizational success, follower success, and even their own success has been a much sought after and controversial concept. While there are varying leadership models and theories, four leadership models include: transformational leadership model, transactional leadership ...view middle of the document...

Avolio & Yammarino (2002), provides five factors that transformational leadership is comprised of (pp. 9-10):
1. Idealized influence (attributed), refers to the emotional component of leadership, which theoretically shifts follower self-interest toward the interest of greater good.
2. Idealized influence (behaviors), reflects the leader’s values and beliefs, sense of mission and purpose, and ethical and moral orientation.
3. Inspirational motivation, reflects the leaders’ desire to inspire and motivate followers in a way that raises followers’ expectations and confidence to be able to achieve ambitious goals.
4. Intellectual stimulation, refers to the leaders’ ability to evoke and invite innovative and creative solutions to problems.
5. Individualize considerations, refers to the leaders’ ability to customize socio-emotional support to followers while at the same time developing and empowering.
Finally, according to Konorti (2008), “transformational leaders have much influence over their followers” and “they can instill pride and gain the trust and respect of their subordinates” (p. 13).
Transactional Leadership
Transactional leadership, according to Avolio and Yammarino (202), is characterized by aspects of “control, contracts, rationality, norms, and conservatism, and stability” (p. 7). Additionally, according to Clawson (2006), transactional leadership is contingent upon on exchange between the leader and follower. The relationship is also based on a rewards system based on successful performance levels. According to Wren (1995), transactional leadership takes place when one individual take the initiative in making contact with another with an intention of exchanging something of value. In this relationship, the leader and follower has no binding purpose and no desire of a “continuing purpose of a higher purpose” (Wren, 1995, p. 101). By contrast is the transforming leadership. According to Wren (1995), transformational leadership takes place when one or more individuals interact with each other in such a way that “leaders and followers raise one another to higher levels of motivation and morality” (p. 101). The leader and follower relationship is contingent upon a common goal or purpose (Wren, 1995). Finally, according to Wren (1995), transformational leadership “ultimately becomes moral in that it raises the level of human conduct and ethical aspiration of both leader and led, and thus it has a transforming effect on both” (p. 101).
Finally, according to Tichy and Devanna (1990), transformational leaders “are the ones who will determine the quality of life inside and outside of the workplace in the 21st century” (p. 2). Transformational leaders have a drive for excellence and recognize that in order to best support their organization, there exists a need for total employee involvement and there exists a need for continuous quality improvement and employee training and development (Tichy & Devanna,...

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