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C++ Programming Essay

1168 words - 5 pages

C++ Programming

NOTES ON C++ PROGRAMMING
Module 1: Pointers and Memory Management

NOTES ON C++ PROGRAMMING
Module 1: Pointers and Memory Management

TABLE OF CONTENTS
TABLE OF CONTENTS 1
OVERVIEW 4
BASIC MEMORY MANAGEMENT 5
GROUP ASSIGNMENT 6
INITIALIZATION 8
CONSTANTS 9
INCREMENT AND DECREMENT OPERATORS 10
ELSE-IF 13
SWITCH 14
LOOPS 15
EXAMPLES OF LOOPS 16
BREAK, CONTINUE 18
RETURN 19
FUNCTION DEFINITION: 21
VOID FUNCTIONS 22
FUNCTIONS RETURNING A VALUE 23
OVERVIEW

Algorithms:

A step-by-step sequence of instructions that describes how to perform a computation.

Answers the question "What method will you use to solve this ...view middle of the document...

4. Code the algorithm into C.
5. Test the program using selected test data.
BASIC MEMORY MANAGEMENT

Space set aside for the variable:

Characters 1 byte (8 bits)
Pointers 4 bytes
Integers 2 bytes (16 bits) or 4 bytes (32 bits)
Short int or short 2 bytes
Unsigned int or unsigned 2 bytes
Long Integers 4 bytes
Floats 4 bytes(single precision, about 7 decimal places)
Doubles 8 bytes(double precision, about 15 decimal places)

Type Space

a) double *values; __________________ ________________________

b) long x[1000]; __________________ ________________________

c) char *s = "string"; __________________ ________________________

d) char s[] = "string"; __________________ ________________________

e) char *name [10]; __________________ ________________________

f) int y; __________________ ________________________

GROUP ASSIGNMENT

This assignment is to reinforce the idea of the big picture.
Assignment:
Your consulting firm has been hired to develop computer application(s) for a book store that will be opening in a local shopping center in 6 months. These applications will help the owner keep track of employee payroll, inventory, special orders, etc.
Your group should decide the following:
1. How many different applications do you need to write?
2. Can you use applications that have already been developed?
3. How are you going to divide up the project?

Turn in the following:
1. Structure charts for the applications you need to develop inhouse.
2. List of inputs and outputs for each applications.
3. List of variables and memory requirements for each application.

Be prepared to:
1. Describe your applications.
2. Why did you select these applications.
3. Defend your logic.
Scope

Scope of a variable is the part of the program where it can be used.

An "automatic" variable is declared at the beginning of a function or in the function’s argument list and its scope is limited to the function it is declared in. Two automatic variables of the same name but in different functions are unrelated.

An "external" variable is declared outside any function and its scope is from the point of declaration to the end of the file.

INITIALIZATION

External (and static) variables are initialized to zero by default.

Automatic variables
- contain undefined values unless they are initialized.
- lose their values when the call to the function they are declared in is over.

CONSTANTS

integer constant 1 345 -10
character constant 'a' 't' (in single quotes)
real constant 2.3 3e10 .12E-5
string constant "abc" "a" (in double quotes)

Arithmetic Operators

* , /, %

+ , -

Relational Operators

, >=

== is equal to
!= is not equal to

Logical Operators

! NOT

&& AND

|| OR
INCREMENT AND DECREMENT OPERATORS

++, --

Assignment Operators

var op= expr

is equivalent to

var = var op expr

...

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