Case Study From Bio 099

2388 words - 10 pages

Jenna Friedland

Case Study

Part I

1. Proteins have many different uses in the human body, everything from transporting oxygen and carbon dioxide through the body as hemoglobin to fighting disease and infection as antibodies. Protein is made up of amino acids and there are 20 different amino acids that make up different proteins. An amino acid is formed by an carboxyl group, an amino group and a R group. The R group is how the amino acids differ from one another. The human body makes 10 out of the 20 amino acids all on its own. It gets the rest from food and nutrients that is taken into the body. There are many different kinds of food that are rich in protein. For ...view middle of the document...

Some carbs are more healthy then others. For example food with lots of whole grains and fiber are really good for you in moderate amounts. However, foods such as potatoes and corn in excess can be bad for you and can cause diseases such as diabetes. People have to include carbs in their diet in order to be healthy and for their body to run correctly.
As far as fats go if you have a lot of fats in your diet you will become fat. However, you do need some fat in your diet. Fat is used mainly for long term energy storage and insulation. However, there are also fats such as cholesterol the help in creating hormones such as testosterone and estrogen. Fats most of the time are called triglycerides because they are made up of one glycerol molecule and three fatty acid molecules covalently bonded together. There are saturated and unsaturated fats. Saturated fats are saturated because they are “saturated” with hydrogen atoms. Saturated fats are things like butter and margarine that are solid at room temperature. Also saturated fats tend to come from animal products. Unsaturated fats are “unsaturated” because instead the center carbon bonding to two hydrogen on each side the double bond to each other. Unsaturated fast are liquid at room temperature. They tend to come from plants.. It is much healthier to eat unsaturated fats then saturated fats. You can get these healthy fats from olive oils, fish oils and nuts.

2. The only way the nervous system and brain cells get energy is from sugar (mainly glucose). They cannot get energy from fats or proteins like other parts of the body. It is very important that a body is getting some carbohydrates or sugars. If it is not you are basically starving thee brain of energy. That is why a lot of people get cranky when they are hungry. This is why a pure Atkins diet is very unhealthy for you. You will basically be killing brain cells because of the lack of sugars in your diet.
3. I do agree with Janine that too much protein can cause kidney damage. However, having too much protein and fat and not enough carbs can also interfere with cell function. Cells need carbs in order for cell respiration to work. Without carbs the cell is not getting enough oxygen and is not getting rid of carbon dioxide. Also without carbs or sugars the cell cannot produce ATP which is the energy the cell runs off of. However, protein is very important because it helps creates DNA which what tells the cell to do. Anyway without carbs and too much protein the kidneys will become dehydrated and there for work overtime. When the carbohydrates are broken down it results in water. Instead of processing water the kidneys would be processing to much nitrogen since nitrogen is a major part of amino acids.
4. The definition of a calorie is the amount of heat required to raise the temperature of 1g of water. The definition of energy is the capacity to do work and bring about change occurs in a variety of forms. The reason why calorie free...

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