Causes and spread of infection
1.1 Identify the differences between bacteria, viruses, fungi and parasites
Bacteria comes in 3 main shapes; spherical which are known as cocci, rod shaped which are known as bacilli or vibrio, and spiral which is known as spirilla or spirochetes. Bacteria is found in everything for e.g. soil, water, animals, plants, radioactive waste. The only place they aren’t found is where humans have sterilised. They can cause illnesses like tuberculosis, tonsillitis, and laryngitis and food poisoning
Virus is a toxin or poison. It is a microscopic organism consisting of genetic material. They cannot reproduce without a host cell. When it ...view middle of the document...
Viruses are common parasites. Parasites have to be in its host to live, grow and multiply.
1.2 Identify common illness and infections caused by: bacteria, viruses, fungi and parasites.
* Common illness and infections caused by bacteria are:-
- Tuberculosis (TB).
- Pertussis (Whooping Cough).
- Bubonic Plague.
* Common illness and infections caused by viruses are:-
- Aids / HIV.
- Chicken Pox.
* Common illness and infections caused by fungi are:-
- Athlete’s Foot.
* Common illness and infections caused by parasites are:-
- Malaria (carried by mosquitos)
- Schistosomiasis (flatworms)
- Chagas disease
- Skin mites
- Hair and body lice (head lice and crab lice)
- Protozoa (Giardia)
1.3 Describe what is meant by infection colonisation.
Infection begins when an organism successfully colonizes by entering the body, growing and multiplying. Most humans are not easily infected. Those who are weak, sick, and malnourished, have cancer or are diabetic have increased susceptibility to chronic or persistent infections. Individuals who have a suppressed immune system are particularly susceptible to opportunistic infections. Entrance to the host generally occurs through the mucosa in orifices like the oral cavity, nose, eyes, genitalia, anus, or open wounds. While a few organisms can grow at the initial site of entry, many migrate and cause systemic infection in different organs. Some pathogens grow within the host cells (intracellular) whereas others grow freely in bodily fluids.
1.4 explain what is meant by ‘systemic infection’ and ‘localised infection’
A systemic infection is one that affects the whole body, probably travelling in lymph or blood. This is in contrast to a local infection which only affects the area where the infection entered.
1.5 Identify poor practices that may lead to the spread of infection.
Not wearing personal protective equipment such as disposable gloves, disposable aprons, washing hands and disposing of clinical waste in the correct way. Also sharing toothbrushes, towels. Poor infection control, Poor staff training
2.1 Explain the conditions needed for the growth of micro-organisms
Micro-organisms need something to feed on, they like high protein food to survive such as dairy products, raw eggs and uncooked fish.
Moisture - the micro-organisms will not grow in dry...