K4D806 Significant theoretical perspectives on:-
A. CHILDREN AS LEARNERS:-
-Programmed Learning - is a learning methodology or technique first proposed by the behaviourist B F Skinner. According to Skinner “The purpose of programmed learning is to manage human learning under controlled conditions. Programmed learning has 3 elements:- it delivers information in small bites, it is self paced and it provides immediate feedback, both positive and negative, to the learner”. Skinner based his ideas on the principle of operant conditioning, which theorized that learning takes place when a reinforcing stimulus is presented to reward a correct response.
-Laissez faire approaches – ...view middle of the document...
The social constructivist model originated in the work of Kant and views children as ‘empty vessels’ (transmission model) and partly as pre-programmed (laissez faire approach) with an interaction between the two. The social constructivist model emphasises environmental, biological and cultural factors and sees the child as an active participant in their learning and development.
Piaget was a constructivist whose work has been a major influence both on developmental psychology and on learning and education. Piaget's view was that from birth, a child actively selects and interprets information from its environment and has the ability to adapt and learn .His theory focused on intellectual development. Piaget saw the child as constantly constructing and reconstructing reality – achieving increased understanding by integrating simple concepts into more complex concepts at each stage of development. He argued that there was a natural sequence for the development of thought governed by what he termed ‘genetic epistemology’. It was not enough to teach ideas by simple reinforcement or praise – the child had to be at a particular stage of development to be able to learn new concepts. Piaget identified 4 stages in this process:-
1. Sensori motor
- sensor-motor (birth to about 2yrs)- The child moves from basic reflexes and learns through its senses, gradually moving towards organising more complex physical action schemes such as hitting and grasping
- Pre-operational (2 to 7yrs~) –The child begins to manipulate the environment and to represent objects by words, which support play with ideas. Logic rests on incomplete knowledge.
- Concrete operational stage (7-11yrs) – Children become capable of more systematic logical thought and begin to grasp the abstract notions. They still need to relate their thinking to concrete objects and activities.
- Formal-operational (12 onwards) – Piaget claimed that this stage was characterised by orderly thinking and mastery of logical thought. Children can manipulate abstract ideas, make hypotheses and see the implications of their thinking and that of others.
Piaget had a great interest in intellectual development and his work has influenced how children are taught today. His overall conclusion was that children are not less intelligent than adults, they simply think in different ways. He also felt that there should be little intervention from adults. He suggested that children constructed or built up their thoughts according to their experiences through a schema – (a pattern of repeatable behaviour). Piaget felt that learning was an ongoing process and he believed that children adapt their schemas when they have new experiences. He used specific vocabulary to describe this learning
- assimilation – taking in new information from the environment through the child’s existing patterns of action (sometimes called schemas)
- accommodation- modifying existing patterns of actions to accommodate new information...