Invasion of White Huns from Central Asia beginning 451 CE.Gupta State collapsed mid-6th c.Chaos in northern India.Local power struggles.Invasions of Turkish nomads, absorbed into Indian society
King Harsha (r. 606-648 CE)
Temporary restoration of unified rule in north India.Religiously tolerant.Buddhist by faith.Generous support for poor.Patron of the arts.Wrote three plays.Assassinated, no successor able to retain control.
Introduction of Islam to Northern India
Arabs conquer Sind (north-west India), 711.Heterodox population, but held by Abbasid dynasty to 1258.
Merchants and Islam
Arabic trade with India predates Islam.Dominated trade between India and the west to 15th ...view middle of the document...
Some Temples had large landholdings.Education providers.Banking services.
Cross-Cultural Trade in the Indian Ocean Basin.
Trade increases in post-classical period.Larger ships.Dhows, junks.Improved organization of agricultural efforts.Establishment of Emporia.Cosmopolitan port cities serve as warehouses for trade.Specialized products developed (cotton, high-carbon steel).
The Kingdom of Axum
Example of trade-driven development.Founded 1st c. CE.Adopted Christianity .Displaces Kush as Egyptian link to the south.Axum destroys Kushan capital Meroë c. 360 CE.Major territorial expansion to late 6th c.
Challenges to Caste and Society
Migrations.Growth of Islam.Urbanization.Economic development.Development of Jati (subcastes).Similar to worker’s guilds.Caste system expands from north to south.Promoted by Temples, educational system.
Decline of Buddhism
Buddhism displaced as Turkish invasions destroy holy sites, temples.1196 Muslim forces destroy library of Nalanda.Thousands of monks exiled.
Development of Hinduism
Growth of devotional cults.Esp. Vishnu, Shiva.Promise of salvation.Especially popular in southern India, spreads to north.
Shankara, Brahmin philosopher -of 9th c. CE.Devotee of Shiva.Synthesized Hindu writings in Platonic form.Preferred rigorous logical analysis to emotional devotion.
Ramanuja, Brahmin philosopher -11th-early 12th...