The industrial revolution was a time of social, economical and technological changes. The industrial revolution began in Britain in the late 18th and early 19th century and spread to other nations. It was a period in time that went from an economy based society on manual labor to an economy based on complex machinery. Areas that were once rural now were large industrial cities consisting of factories. This caused many people to move into these cities looking for employment. Family needs were no longer based on production but rather on consumption.
As the Industrial Revolution developed, the health and welfare of the workers deteriorated. As people flocked to the urban areas for ...view middle of the document...
The government made improvements on sanitary and social conditions. Sewers were installed; houses and factories had proper drains installed to provide clean water.
All the changes being made in England influenced the United States to make improvements upon their public health as well. America faced epidemics of typhoid, smallpox and cholera as well. Soon, America created a public health organization as well.
The 19th century brought about great developments in France. The French introduced the application of scientific methods for identifying and treating communicable diseases. Louis Pasteur introduced methods for isolating and characterizing bacteria. In 1879, he developed the technique of pasteurization which destroyed bacteria in solutions. In 1881, Pasteur developed protective vaccines for some of the diseases claiming thousands of people’s lives which sparked an interest in immunity. Such revelations in microbiology and immunology paved the road for many improvements in public heath that we have today.
Scientific developments in the 19th century had a major impact on understanding health and disease, as experimental research resulted in new knowledge in histology, pathology and microbiology. Technological developments aided this process, improved microscopes that revealed micro-organisms, to instruments like the kymograph, to measure blood pressure and muscular contraction. The stethoscope was invented in France in 1817 to aid diagnosis of respiratory and cardiac disorders. The stethoscope became the symbolic icon of the medical profession and is used every day around the world.
Surgery advanced largely to the invention of anesthesia in the late 1840s. Significant events include a notable public demonstration of the effects of ether in London in October 1846. Anesthetics enabled surgeons to perform more...