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Change Management Best Essay

1841 words - 8 pages

Change Management Best
Practices for ERP Applications,
An Internal Auditor's
Jeffrey T. Hare, CPA CISA CIA
ERP Risk Advisors

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© 2012 ERPRA

Presentation Agenda
•GTAG 2: What is it?
•Internal Auditor Expectations
•Common Change Management Challenges
•Wrap Up / Q&A
Note: CPE will be ...view middle of the document...

In general, more changes indicate more
change productivity, as long as the change
success rate remains high. The trend (up,
down or steady) should make sense in the
business context.
High-performing organizations can sustain
over 1,000 successful changes per week.8

Number of actual changes made per The number of changes actually implemented
week, as measured by
for the week should not exceed the number of
detective controls such as monitoring authorized changes.


© 2012 ERPRA

Change Management Metrics
Metric and Indicators


Number of unauthorized changes.
These are changes that
circumvented the change process.

Lower is better, but typically the only
acceptable number of unauthorized change is
zero; one rogue change can kill an entire
operation or create material risk.

This is measured by taking the
number of actual changes made
and subtracting the number of
authorized changes.
Where detective controls are not
present, no reliable measurement
of actual changes can be made. In
this case, the number of unplanned
outages can be used as a substitute


Large numbers of unauthorized changes
indicate that “the real way to make changes” is
to circumvent the change management
High-performing organizations have a culture
of change management and consequently
state that they do not tolerate any
unauthorized changes.

© 2012 ERPRA

Change Management Metrics
Metric and Indicators


Number of emergency changes
(including patches), determined
by counting the number of changes
that required an urgent approval
during the week using the change
review board or emergency change

Lower is typically better. Many emergency
changes indicate that the “real way to make
changes” is to use the emergency change
process either for convenience or speed.
Emergency changes typically have a higher
failure rate and generate unplanned work or
rework. An increase in emergency changes
may indicate that there are other change
management problems causing this increase.
ITPI benchmarking found that when
emergency changes comprise more than 10
percent of total changes, the organization
is almost certainly a low performer. In
particular, two organizations that had
catastrophic “front page news” IT
failures were typically expediting more than 25
percent of their change requests


© 2012 ERPRA

Change Management Metrics
Metric and Indicators


Change success rate, defined as
successfully implemented
changes (those that did not cause an
outage, service impairment, or an
episode of unplanned work) as a
percentage of actual changes made.

Higher is better. When changes are not
managed and not adequately tested, change
success rates typically are around
70 percent.


High-performing organizations not only
regularly achieve change success rates of 99
percent, but failed changes rarely cause

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