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Changes Associated With Aging And Their Effect On Self Esteem P5 M3

2604 words - 11 pages

Physical and psychological changes associated with aging

Effects of aging on the cardiovascular system
Aging brings on increased stiffness of the chest wall, diminished blood flow through the lungs, and a reduction in the strength of your heartbeat.
Many of the cells even lose their ability to function or they function abnormally. Waste products build up inside your tissue, and connective tissue becomes stiffer, making organs, blood vessels and airways becoming more rigid. Cell membranes also change, causing them to have more trouble getting oxygen and nutrients, and removing carbon dioxide and wastes, than when you were younger.

An effect of changes in your tissue and cells is ...view middle of the document...

And it can also do damage to the legs, kidneys, and intestines.

Effects of aging on the Respiratory system
As the aging process progresses, the chest wall loses its elasticity and becomes more rigid due to rib calcification, or calcium deposits. Respiratory muscles become weaker, most likely due to muscle mass loss within the diaphragm and the muscles between the ribs. These factors, along with the lung tissue losing elasticity, lead to laboured breathing in older adults.
Another change that takes place in the respiratory system as the aging process advances is in the airways. The sensory receptors in the airways, lose their sensitivity with age. Therefore, the diminished cough reflex enables debris and irritants to reach the deep lung tissues, which can cause respiratory tract infections.

Emphysema is a long-term, progressive disease of the lungs that primarily causes shortness of breath. In people with emphysema the lung tissues necessary to support the physical shape and function of the lung are damaged. Emphysema is one of several diseases known collectively as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. The aging process can also affect the respiratory system by causing a type of emphysema known as senile emphysema, even in those who do not smoke. This happens when the alveoli lose their depth and become flatter, thereby reducing their surface area. Typically, a person will have lost about 25% of his alveolar surface area by the time he is in his 90s, which causes shortness of breath and coughing.
You can decrease the risk of problems within your respiratory system by staying physically active.

Effects of aging on the nervous system
The brain and nervous system lose nerve cells, and they pass messages at a slower rate which causes slower reactions. Abnormal changes in the brain called plaques and tangles form because waste products can be collected in the brain tissue as nerve cells breaks down.

Slowing of thought, memory, and thinking occur. You may develop Alzheimer disease, and studies show that this is associated with plaques and tangles forming in the brain, which is more common in older people.
Risks of having hypertension increases as you get older, which can cause you to feel dizzy after sudden movements.
Motor Neurone Disease;
Motor neurone disease (MND) is the name for a group of diseases that affect nerve cells in your brain and spinal cord. Your brain sends instructions to your muscles that control movement along nerve cells called motor neurones. Motor neurone disease gradually destroys these nerve cells, which can cause your muscles to become weak and waste away. Often, the first symptoms of problems with your muscles are clumsy fingers and a weak grip.
The different types affect different groups of nerves.
Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis affects the muscles in your arms, legs or face first.
Progressive bulbar palsy mainly affects the muscles you use to talk, chew and swallow.

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