Chapter 12: Neurophysiology 1 Essay

1161 words - 5 pages

Lecture 12: Neurophysiology 1

Summarize the three basic functions of the nervous system
Sensory: detects events and changes in existing conditions, either outside our bodies or inside our bodies
Integration, interpretation, information storage, decision making: integrate, interpret and store sensory info to decide whether action should be taken, and to determine what that action should be
Motor: sends commands to muscle and glands, instructing them to take appropriate actions: this is called motor activity

Draw a diagram that shows the basic divisions of the nervous system

In addition to astrocytes, name three other types of neuroglia cells and describe the ...view middle of the document...

Often low-grade tumors
glioblastomas: (gliomas) arise from malignant transformation of astrocytes. They are high grade tumors and survival is usually less than two years - nearly impossible to remove by surgical means
oligodendrogliomas: develop from oligodendrocytes and may be operable in their early stages

Name the three functional types of neurons
Sensory neurons: involved in conveying sensory info to the central nervous system
Interneurons: convey info from one neuron to another neuron. In some arts of the central nervous system, interneurons stop other neurons from firing
Motor neurons: convey motor commands, usually to skeletal muscles

Draw and label a neuron

Describe how substances and organelles move up and down an axon. Name the terms used for this process
Axoplasmic flow: slow process which is responsible for carrying soluble proteins synthesized in the cell body down to the axon terminals
Axonal transport: faster, ATP-requiring process. This process is involved in the transport of organelles through the axon. The transport occurs on the surfaces of microtubules, also known as neurotubules. These are fine threads composed of special proteins that course inside the axon along its entire length
Retrograde axonal transport: operates in both directs. Opposite of anterograde axonal transport, and can move particles toward the neuronal cell body

Describe a Schwann cell and list its functions
the prime target of the bacterium that causes leprosy
wrap themselves around the axon many times, like a bandage around a finger
the outermost layer of this bandage is that part of the Schwann cell that contains the nucleus and cytoplasm, and is called the neurilemma or neurilemma sheath
*** form the myelin sheath that speeds up the conduction of nervous impulses
*** important in the regeneration of damaged axons
produce neurotrophic factors that promote axonal regeneration

List the functions of the myelin sheath
multilayered, white, phospholipid, segmented covering
an electrical insulator, and accelerates the conduction velocity of the nerve impulse by as much as ten times

Describe the defect in multiple sclerosis and Tay-Sachs disease
affects the brain and spinal cord
believed to be an autoimmune disease in which the body’s immune system destroys the myelin sheath
damage to the myelin either slows down the nerve signals or blocks them altogether
cause in unknown

Describe how an injured nerve regenerates
damaged peripheral myelinated axons can often regrow if the cell body remains intact Initially, that part of the axon severed from its cell body dies. The myelin sheath breaks...

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