Chemistry Review

2285 words - 10 pages


1.  5 points of the particle theory:
* 1. All matter is made up of tiny particle with empty spaces between them
* 2. Different substances are made up of different particles
* 3. Particle are always in constant random motion
* 4. Particles of a substance move faster as the temperature increases
* 5. Particles attract each other

2. Changing state from solid to liquid to gas:
* form a solid when the forces are strong enough to form a rigid shape
* they gain energy when heated and begin to move faster, when they can no longer hold each other, this forms the liquid state
* if they are continued to be heated the particles literally fly apart

3. ...view middle of the document...

Describing substances with physical properties:
* lustre: shininess (high) or dullness (low)
* optical clarity: ability to allow light through (transparent, translucent and opaque)
* brittleness: breakability (high) flexibility (low)
* viscosity: ability of a substance to pour readily
* hardness: ability to scratch or be scratched by another substance
* malleability: ability of a substance to be hammered into a thin sheet
* ductility: ability of the substance to be pulled into a fine strand
* electrical conductivity: ability of the substance to conduct electricity

7. Physical changes vs. Chemical changes:
* physical change: a change in which the composition of a substance remains unaltered and no new substances are produced
* chemical change: a change in the starting substance or substances and the production of one or more new substances

8. The 5 signs of chemical change:
* change in colour
* change in odour
* bubbles are visible that are not caused by heating
* a new solid is seen
* a change in temperature or light

9. Boiling, freezing and melting point:
* boiling point: the temperature at which a substance changes state rapidly from a liquid to a gas
* freezing point: the temperature at which a liquid turns to a solid
* melting point: the temperature at which a solid turns into a liquid

10. Density
* density: a measure of how much mass is contained in a given unit volume of substance
* how to calculate: dividing the mass of a sample by its volume = m/v

11. Element
* element: a pure substance that can not be broken down into a simpler
* example: if its on the periodic table

12. Compound
* compound: a pure substance composed of 2 or more different elements that are chemically joined
* example: water is composed hydrogen and oxygen

13. Metals, non-metals and metalloids and their properties:
* metals: located on the left and the central parts of the periodic table; generally lustrous, malleable and ductile, conduct heat and electricity (ex. Calcium, nickel, zinc.)
* non-metals: located on the upper right portion of the periodic table; usually gas or dull powdery solid, does not conduct heat or electricity (ex. Oxygen, carbon, chlorine, iodine.)
* metalloids: located along the staircase; has properties of both metals and non-metals (ex. Boron, silicon, germanium, arsenic, antimony, tellurium)

14. Main families in the periodic table:
* Alkali metals: found in group 1 of the periodic
* lithium
* sodium
* potassium
* rubidium
* cesium
* francium
* VERY reactive metals - rarely found as elements because they readily react to form compounds
* shiny, soft and low density (float on water)
* reactivity increases DOWN the column
* extremely reactive with water
* Alkaline earth metals: found in group 2 of the periodic table
* beryllium
* magnesium
* calcium

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