EDUCATION OF CHINA
Since 1949, when the People's Republic of China was founded, The Chinese government has placed priority on developing education, putting forward the strategy of revitalizing the country through science and education, making constant efforts to deepen the reform of educational system, and implementing the nine-year compulsory education. Governments at all levels are increasing investment in education and encourage people to run education through different channels and in different forms.
A good education has always been highly valued in China, as the people believe that education ensures not only the future and development of the individual but also the family and the ...view middle of the document...
A Confucian education emphasizes basic skills like reading, writing and arithmetic, as well as music, art, poetry and skills like horseback riding and martial arts. Confucian education also focused on creating gentlemanly scholars that would be good moral examples for others and give sound advice to rulers. Students spent years studying and memorizing classic Confucian texts.
At the end of China’s last imperial dynasty in the early 20th century, the Confucian system and imperial examinations were abolished as it was thought that this style of education didn’t encourage scientific advancement. Reformers believed that only Western-style education could allow China to become a powerful country.
In the early 1900s the new Republic of China attempted to instate its own educational program but it was largely failed because of disunity, civil war and the Japanese invasion during World War II. After the creation of the People’s Republic of China in 1949, centralized compulsory primary and secondary education was instated under the Ministry of Education.
In the last 60 years there have been tremendous improvements in education in China. Illiteracy has fallen dramatically and the vast majority of Chinese are able to graduate from secondary school. China ranks high for a developing country of the Human Development Report’s Education Index, with a score of 0.83. The higher education system in China has seen a renewed emphasis on science and technology and the government is seeking to create a number of world-class institutions.
Education system of China now includes pre-school, primary school, secondary school, high school, university and college, as well as graduate school education.
Pre-school education is for 3-5 year olds and takes place in kindergartens.
Primary education is from 6-11. Primary schools are usually run by local educational authorities and over free tuition, although there are some private schools owned by enterprises and individuals.
Secondary school is for children from 12-17 years of age. Education of this kind is run by local governments and various business authorities. State-run secondary schools include junior middle schools and senior middle schools, both with three grades or years. The first three years of secondary school are compulsory and tuition is free. Senior middle school is not compulsory and students must pay minimal tuition fees. Private secondary schools often offer specialized education and have a more vocational bent, but the qualifications they offer are considered to be on the same level as those of state-run middle schools. However, graduates from secondary professional schools are seen to have achieved a higher level in some ways akin to a university education. Students graduating from junior middle schools usually go on to senior middle schools, although some move to vocational high schools or secondary professional schools for 3-5 years of study.
For higher education there are vocational courses as...