Introduction to the disease:
Chlamydia is a sexually transmitted disease that is caused by the bacterium called Chlamydia trachomatis. This bacterium is found in semen and vaginal fluid. It’s one of the most commonly transmitted sexual diseases in the UK in the last twenty years and it is a curable disease if detected in an early stage. It affects both sexes but women are more at risk than men; especially young women ages 16-25 years. It is called the “silent killer” because the symptoms are not obvious, they are usually asymptomatic, or they have very few symptoms. The main problem with this disease is that its symptoms are not easily detected until it has spread to other ...view middle of the document...
This can lead to the following health issues in women: Ectopic pregnancy- when the pregnancy is developed outside the womb; blocked fallopian tube; tubal infertility; and long-term pelvic pain.
While in male, Chlamydia can cause painful infection in the testicles and possibly reduced fertility. And, in rare occasions, Chlamydia can cause inflammation of the joints in both sexes and lead to reactive arthritis. When, Chlamydia happens in the urethra or in the eye, it is called retiers’ syndrome.
The monitoring of all sexual diseases in the UK is mostly done at genitourinary medicine clinics, generally known as GUM clinics. The true statistics of sexually transmitted disease are lost because diagnoses made in other facilities such as with the general practitioner (GP) and family planning clinics are not included in the statistics. The symptoms of the disease in male are the urethritis, a clear discharge or pain in the penis. Without treatment this could lead to inflammation and then ultimately sterility. In female, symptoms are absent but without early detection it can lead to inflammation then pelvic inflammatory disease (PID). In female, the uterus tube can be inflamed and these increase the chance of having ectopic pregnancy.
When the symptoms are noticed, the person needs to see the general practitioner (GP) or visit the GUM clinics or sexual health clinics. This type of actions can help reduced the cases of STD in the UK.
Data showing trends:
Year Chlamydia (uncomplicated)
% change 2006-2007 7%
Table 1. Chlamydia diagnoses at GUM clinics in the UK: 1998-2007 (HPA, 2008).
Table 1 indicates the gradual increase in tested cases of Chlamydia in the last ten years and we can see an increase of 150% in reported cases in the UK between 1998 and 2007 not taken into consideration those people who has not been screen for the disease or who are not aware that are carrying the disease.
Between 1996-2005, the largest increase of cases of Chlamydia was reported to have risen by 206%, (HPA, 2005)
Brief discussion on any causal/associate factors:
A new government initiative to deal with the growth of Chlamydia in the country is the National Chlamydia Screening Programme (NCSP), which began service in April 2003. The goal of the NCSP is to deal with the control of STDs through early detection and interception by treatment with antibiotics. Many more centres are included to screen for the disease that are non-GUM clinics. (Annual Report. 2007). There has also been an increase in...