Chronic Kidney Disease Essay

2333 words - 10 pages

CHRONIC KIDNEY DISEASE
Helen T. Ocdol, MD, FPCP, FPSN
Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD) is a dreaded condition . CKD includes a continuum of kidney dysfunction from mild kidney damage to end-stage renal disease (ESRD). Chronic renal disease is interchangeably used for CKD but to be unifom in usage, we will use the term Chronic Kidney Disease or CKD. In the U.S., there are 20 million adults who have chronic disease and over 400,000 persons have ESRD and require dialytic or transplantation therapy. In the Philippines, annually we have about 6,ooo patients started on dialysis most of which are caused by diabetis mellitus. Complications of this condition have also made this the 9th cause of death ...view middle of the document...

73m3. This should be calculated on two occasions, with an interval of at least two weeks, before a diagnosis of CKD is considered. The disease domains of hypertension (high blood pressure), proteinuria (excretion of protein in the urine) and hyperlipidemia (increased blood level of cholesterol and/or triglyceride) may occur at any stage so these should be treated to slow down the progression of the disease. Anemia (low red blood cell count not to be confused with low blood pressure) appears at Stage 3, and hypertension may become less controlled during Stage 3-4. The bone disease of CKD or renal dystrophy, malnutrition and decreasing immune status typically appear during early Stage 4 and worsen rapidly as kidney failure (Stage 5) approaches. It is also necessary to adjust the dosage of the medicines depending on the kidney function particularly after reaching Stage 4.
There are risk factors for CKD, the two most important of which are diabetes mellitus and hypertension. The former is the greatest contributor to the ESRD population. Other risk factors are: positive family history of kidney disease, urinary tract obstruction, urolithiasis (stones in the urinary tract), reduced kidney mass (solitary kidney) or size, exposure to nephrotoxins (drugs or chemicals that damage the kidneys like pain killers, antibiotics or radio-contrast dye), autoimmune disorders (like systemic lupus erythematosus), and low birth weight. Socio-demographic risk factors include low income level, low educational level, exposure to chemical or environmental hazards, male gender, and advanced age. Certain ethnic groups have a higher risk of developing CKD including Asians, African-Americans, Hispanics, and American Indians. These groups should be screened for kidney disease from time to time.
One of the strongest predictors for worsening kidney function is the degree of protein excretion in the urine specially Asian and American-Indian patients with Type 2 diabetes mellitus . Other risk factors for the progression of CKD include: morbid obesity, hypercholesterolemia, the metabolic syndrome (a form of type 2 diabetes mellitus due to resistance to insulin, obesity, hypertension and high cholesterol level), heavy consumption of non-narcotic pain medication (like ibuprofen, mefenamic acid, diclofenac, naproxen, etc.) and cigarette smoking. These risk factors for the progression of the the kidney disease are particularly seen among patients with diabetes, glomerular disorders and Adult Polycystic Kidney Disease (an inherited disease where both kidneys have cysts). Strategies to delay the progression of CKD should include: controlling high blood pressure, compliance with dietary protein restriction, stringent control of the blood sugar among diabetics, the use of medications to lower cholesterol, and preventing the occurrence of acute renal failure (as what happens in patients with dehydration, infection, and urinary tract obstruction from stone).
What does one feel when...

Other Essays Like Chronic Kidney Disease

Genitourinary System Essay

5062 words - 21 pages produced by an infection elsewhere in the body. 5. Loss of kidney function develops. B. Causes 1. Immunological diseases 2. Autoimmune diseases 3. Antecedent group A beta-hemolytic streptococcal infection of the pharynx or skin 4. History of pharyngitis or tonsillitis 2 to 3 weeks before Symptoms TYPES Acute: Occurs 2 to 3 weeks after a streptococcal infection Chronic: Can occur after the acute phase or slowly over time COMPLICATIONS 1

Information Technology Essay

777 words - 4 pages member of your family had cancer or any other disease of the kidney, bladder, prostate or testicles? Father Mother Brother Sister Children Self Physician Use only: # Answer 0 1-2 3 Level of Service 1 or 2 3 4 or 5 Central Maryland Urology Associates, PA Urology Patient Sexual Dysfunction Questionnaire Page 4 of 4 Patient’s Name: Date: Do you now or have you had any chronic problems related to the following (please circle): General

Renal Failure

718 words - 3 pages kidneys fail they are then referred to as renal failure. Renal failure can happen for many reasons. Renal failure can be acute, meaning immediate or happening over the next couple of days. Kidney failure can also be chronic meaning progressive over time, which could take years. Causes include loss of blood, kidney stones, kidney disease; serve inflammation caused by damage, poisons and drugs. Symptoms include anemia, high blood pressure and low

Cirrhosis and the Liver

825 words - 4 pages surgeries, or rhabdomyolysis. Chronic kidney disease is generally caused by diabetes mellitus, polycystic kidney disease, or long term exposure to large amounts of common drugs such as aspirin, ibuprofen, and acetaminophen. The birth control pill, also known as the combined oral contraceptive pill, uses a combination of the hormones estrogen, and progesterone to prevent ovulation. Without ovulation there will be no egg to fertilize. The pill

Is Drug Addition a Choice or a Diease

1007 words - 5 pages it a disease or is it based on choice? A review of Gene Heyman's Addiction: A disorder of choice. He States that “Addiction is a chronic, often relapsing brain disease…similar to other chronic, relapsing diseases, such as diabetes, asthma, or heart disease….” (NIDA, 2008). http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3047254/ The two article that i was assigned to read give good arguments on weather addiction is a disease or a choice. Alan I

Personal Medicine

627 words - 3 pages for their patients. This information can be used to detect future major illnesses such as cancer, heart disease, hypertension and diabetes as well as other chronic and terminal illnesses. DNA screening will allow a patient to have important medical information in their medical file for illnesses that might otherwise not show up for decades. The Benefits of Personalized Medicine 1. Doctors will know years in advance if their patient will

Heppatits B: an Epidemic

1598 words - 7 pages chronic hepatitis B include cirrhosis, an increased risk for liver cancer, liver failure that could lead to the need for a transplant, kidney problems, and Hepatitis D which is a viral form of hepatitis that can only be acquired if the patient has hepatitis B. Currently, no cure exists for hepatitis B. If a patient has an acute infection they may not need treatment. Their doctor will help patients to reduce symptoms. If a patient is suffering

Angiography Devices Market - Global Industry Analysis and Forecast to 2020

1004 words - 5 pages - 2020”. Angiography is a medical imaging technique used to visualize blood vessels in the brain, neck, heart, and kidneys. For this technique, radiopaque substances and dyes are used to make the blood vessels visible under x-ray. Angiography is used to detect abnormalities or blockage in blood vessels. This, in turn, helps diagnose various critical conditions such as heart diseases, kidney disorders, kidney dysfunction, atherosclerosis

Urinary System

1888 words - 8 pages empty your bladder fully. When you lose your muscle strength, it also causes incontinence which is the unwanted leakage of urine. Its also uncontrollable at times. According to Websters Dictionary pathophysiology means the altered functions in an individual organ or system due to a disease. Interstitial Cystitis, or IC is a chronic bladder disorder. This disease affects the bladder. The bladder starts inflaming and the inflammation can lead

Care Delivery

1540 words - 7 pages /local/files/posters/english/RG-Introduction-EN-01L.pdf (Electronically Accessed 4th April 2012). McManus, T.E., Marley, A.M and Kidney, J.C. (2005) The Mater Hospital Muiltiprofessional Care Pathway for Acute Exacerbation of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease. Journal of Integrated Care Pathways Vol. 9 pp.32-36 Toby, G.D., Capstick, M.R., Ian, J. and Clifton, M.D. (2012), Inhaler Technique and Training in People with Chronic

Hypertension: The Risks For High Blood Pressure

1907 words - 8 pages kidney failure or loss of vision, “high blood pressure damages the blood vessels to the kidneys and eyes” (Hoeger, 2009, p. 349). Hypertension is a chronic disease that can creep up on any individual and cause so many serious complications, many of which are deadly or will cause serious harm. Life Expectancy: Life expectancy of a patient with hypertension, compared to a healthy individual Life expectancy of a person with hypertension appears

Related Papers

Patients With Chronic Kidney Disease Essay

1180 words - 5 pages Patients with Chronic Kidney Disease HCS 490 July 1, 2013 Patients with Chronic Kidney Disease There are so many people across the nation who do not know about Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD) or yet alone, what chronic means. According to Vorvick (2013), “Chronic refers to something that continues over a long period of time.” This means that a person who is diagnosed with CKD has probably had kidney damage that occurred over a period

Smoking: Effects On Your Body Essay

599 words - 3 pages causing chronic kidney diseases (CKD). Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is defined as damaged kidneys, or a reduction in kidney function below 60 percent of normal. Kidney disease is sometimes called a “silent” disease, because it often causes no pain or other symptoms. Smoking directly contributes toward CKD by hardening and narrowing the blood vessels, thereby restricting blood flow to the kidneys and impairing their function. Cigarettes contain toxins

Major Health Issues In The Us Today

1331 words - 6 pages adults age 20 or older in the U.S. have kidney disease and most don't know it. • Diabetes and high blood pressure are the two leading causes of kidney disease. Kidney Disease High blood pressure, especially when left untreated, can damage kidneys and lead to chronic kidney disease. High Blood Pressure • The National Kidney Foundation (NKF) has divided chronic kidney disease into five stages to create a guideline to identify

Kidney Transplant Operations Essay

2667 words - 11 pages match for a specific criteria, which doctors have to conduct specific tests in order to make sure that both of the donor and the recipient carry the same tissue type and blood group. Likewise, the kidney will be accepted unless the donor is healthy which indicates that the donor has not been encountered with a chronic disease, which made the donor constricted for certain medications for the rest of his/her life. In addition, the donor should not