Classical Theory Essay

2208 words - 9 pages


        Question:  (i.)  Critically  evaluate  the  classical  theory  of  organization  and  management  in  the  light  of  contemporary business environmental changes facing managers in Nigeria    (ii.)  How  did  the  neoclassical  and  contingency  theories  improve  on  the  imperations  of  the  classical approach? 



(i.)  Critically  evaluate  the  classical  theory  of  organization  and  management  in  the  light  of  contemporary   business environmental changes facing managers in Nigeria    Classical  organization  theories  (Taylor,  1947;  Weber,  1947;  Fayol,  1949)  deal  with  the  formal  organization  and  concepts  to  increase  ...view middle of the document...

• Scientific: selection of the worker Organizational members should be selected based on some  analysis, and then trained, taught and developed.  • Management and labour cooperation rather than conflict: Management should collaborate  with all organizational members so that all work can be done in conformity with the scientific  principles developed.  • Scientific  training  of  the  worker:   Workers  should  be  trained  by  experts,  using  scientific  methods. 

Organization Theory & Behaviour 

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Weber's bureaucratic approach 
Considering the organization as a segment of broader society, Weber (1947) based the concept  of the formal organization on the following principles: 
• Structure: In  the  organization,  positions  should  be  arranged  in  a  hierarchy,  each  with  a  particular, established amount of responsibility and authority.  • Specialization: Tasks  should  be  distinguished  on  a  functional  basis,  and  then  separated  according to specialization, each having a separate chain of command.  • Predictability  and  stability: The  organization  should  operate  according  to  a  system  of  procedures consisting of formal rules and regulations.  • Rationality: Recruitment and selection of personnel should be impartial. • Democracy: Responsibility  and  authority  should  be  recognized  by  designations  and  not  by  persons. 

Weber's theory is infirm on account of dysfunctions (Hicks and Gullett, 1975) such as rigidity,  impersonality,  displacement  of  objectives,  limitation  of  categorization,  self‐perpetuation  and  empire building, cost of controls, and anxiety to improve status. 

Administrative theory 
The  elements  of  administrative  theory  (Fayol,  1949)  relate  to  accomplishment  of  tasks,  and  include principles of management, the concept of line and staff, committees and functions of  management. 
• Division  of  work  or  specialization: This  increases  productivity  in  both  technical  and  managerial work.  • Authority  and  responsibility: These  are  imperative  for  an  organizational  member  to  accomplish the organizational objectives.  • Discipline: Members  of  the  organization  should  honour  the  objectives  of  the  organization.  They should also comply with the rules and regulations of the organization. • Unity  of  command: This  means  taking  orders  from  and  being  responsible  to  only  one  superior.  • Unity of direction: Members of the organization should jointly work toward the same goals. 

Organization Theory & Behaviour 

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• Subordination of individual interest to general interest: The interest of the organization  should not become subservient to individual interests or the interest of a group of employees.  • Remuneration of personnel: This can be based on diverse factors such as time, job, piece  rates, and bonuses, profit‐sharing or non‐financial rewards.  •...

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