Question: (i.) Critically evaluate the classical theory of organization and management in the light of contemporary business environmental changes facing managers in Nigeria (ii.) How did the neoclassical and contingency theories improve on the imperations of the classical approach?
(i.) Critically evaluate the classical theory of organization and management in the light of contemporary business environmental changes facing managers in Nigeria Classical organization theories (Taylor, 1947; Weber, 1947; Fayol, 1949) deal with the formal organization and concepts to increase ...view middle of the document...
• Scientific: selection of the worker Organizational members should be selected based on some analysis, and then trained, taught and developed. • Management and labour cooperation rather than conflict: Management should collaborate with all organizational members so that all work can be done in conformity with the scientific principles developed. • Scientific training of the worker: Workers should be trained by experts, using scientific methods.
Organization Theory & Behaviour
Weber's bureaucratic approach
Considering the organization as a segment of broader society, Weber (1947) based the concept of the formal organization on the following principles:
• Structure: In the organization, positions should be arranged in a hierarchy, each with a particular, established amount of responsibility and authority. • Specialization: Tasks should be distinguished on a functional basis, and then separated according to specialization, each having a separate chain of command. • Predictability and stability: The organization should operate according to a system of procedures consisting of formal rules and regulations. • Rationality: Recruitment and selection of personnel should be impartial. • Democracy: Responsibility and authority should be recognized by designations and not by persons.
Weber's theory is infirm on account of dysfunctions (Hicks and Gullett, 1975) such as rigidity, impersonality, displacement of objectives, limitation of categorization, self‐perpetuation and empire building, cost of controls, and anxiety to improve status.
The elements of administrative theory (Fayol, 1949) relate to accomplishment of tasks, and include principles of management, the concept of line and staff, committees and functions of management.
• Division of work or specialization: This increases productivity in both technical and managerial work. • Authority and responsibility: These are imperative for an organizational member to accomplish the organizational objectives. • Discipline: Members of the organization should honour the objectives of the organization. They should also comply with the rules and regulations of the organization. • Unity of command: This means taking orders from and being responsible to only one superior. • Unity of direction: Members of the organization should jointly work toward the same goals.
Organization Theory & Behaviour
• Subordination of individual interest to general interest: The interest of the organization should not become subservient to individual interests or the interest of a group of employees. • Remuneration of personnel: This can be based on diverse factors such as time, job, piece rates, and bonuses, profit‐sharing or non‐financial rewards. •...